Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been reported in patients taking PPIs, including rabeprazole. These events have occurred as both new onset and an exacerbation of existing autoimmune disease. The majority of PPI-induced lupus erythematosus cases were CLE.
The most common form of CLE reported in patients treated with PPIs was subacute CLE (SCLE) and occurred within weeks to years after continuous drug therapy in patients ranging from infants to the elderly. Generally, histological findings were observed without organ involvement.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is less commonly reported than CLE in patients receiving PPIs. PPI associated SLE is usually milder than non-drug induced SLE. Onset of SLE typically occurred within days to years after initiating treatment primarily in patients ranging from young adults to the elderly. The majority of patients presented with rash; however, arthralgia and cytopenia were also reported.
Avoid administration of PPIs for longer than medically indicated. If signs or symptoms consistent with CLE or SLE are noted in patients receiving ACIPHEX, discontinue the drug and refer the patient to the appropriate specialist for evaluation. Most patients improve with discontinuation of the PPI alone in 4 to 12 weeks. Serological testing (e.g. ANA) may be positive and elevated serological test results may take longer to resolve than clinical manifestations.
Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed in patients treated with ACIPHEX.
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), healthcare professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [ see Drug Interactions (7)].
PPI use is associated with an increased risk of fundic gland polyps that increases with long-term use, especially beyond one year. Most PPI users who developed fundic gland polyps were asymptomatic and fundic gland polyps were identified incidentally on endoscopy. Use the shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling:
- Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Fundic Gland Polyps [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data described below reflect exposure to ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets in 1064 adult patients exposed for up to 8 weeks. The studies were primarily placebo- and active-controlled trials in adult patients with Erosive or Ulcerative Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), Duodenal Ulcers and Gastric Ulcers. The population had a mean age of 53 years (range 18-89 years) and had a ratio of approximately 60% male: 40% female. The racial distribution was 86% Caucasian, 8% African American, 2% Asian, and 5% other. Most patients received either 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg per day of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets.
An analysis of adverse reactions appearing in ≥2% of patients treated with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets (n=1064) and with a greater frequency than placebo (n=89) in controlled North American and European acute treatment trials, revealed the following adverse reactions: pain (3% vs. 1%), pharyngitis (3% vs. 2%), flatulence (3% vs. 1%), infection (2% vs. 1%), and constipation (2% vs. 1%).
Three long-term maintenance studies consisted of a total of 740 adult patients; at least 54% of adult patients were exposed to ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets for 6 months and at least 33% were exposed for 12 months. Of the 740 adult patients, 247 (33%) and 241 (33%) patients received 10 mg and 20 mg of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets, respectively, while 169 (23%) patients received placebo and 83 (11%) received omeprazole.
The safety profile of rabeprazole in the maintenance studies in adults was consistent with what was observed in the acute studies.
Less common adverse reactions seen in controlled clinical trials (<2% of patients treated with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets and greater than placebo) and for which there is a possibility of a causal relationship to rabeprazole, include the following: headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dry mouth, dizziness, peripheral edema, hepatic enzyme increase, hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, myalgia, and arthralgia.
Combination Treatment with Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin: In clinical trials using combination therapy with rabeprazole plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin (RAC), no adverse reactions unique to this drug combination were observed. In the U.S. multicenter study, the most frequently reported drug related adverse reactions for patients who received RAC therapy for 7 or 10 days were diarrhea (8% and 7%) and taste perversion (6% and 10%), respectively.
No clinically significant laboratory abnormalities particular to the drug combinations were observed.
For more information on adverse reactions or laboratory changes with amoxicillin or clarithromycin, refer to their respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section.
In a multicenter, open-label study of adolescent patients 12 to 16 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of symptomatic GERD or endoscopically proven GERD, the adverse event profile was similar to that of adults. The adverse reactions reported without regard to relationship to ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets that occurred in ≥2% of 111 patients were headache (9.9%), diarrhea (4.5%), nausea (4.5%), vomiting (3.6%), and abdominal pain (3.6%). The related reported adverse reactions that occurred in ≥2% of patients were headache (5.4%) and nausea (1.8%). There were no adverse reactions reported in this study that were not previously observed in adults.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of rabeprazole. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: vertigo
Eye Disorders: blurred vision
Gastrointestinal Disorders: fundic gland polyps
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: sudden death
Hepatobiliary Disorders: jaundice
Immune System Disorders: anaphylaxis, angioedema, systemic lupus erythematosus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal)
Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea
Investigations: Increases in prothrombin time/INR (in patients treated with concomitant warfarin), TSH elevations
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: hyperammonemia, hypomagnesemia
Musculoskeletal System Disorders: bone fracture, rhabdomyolysis
Nervous System Disorders: coma
Psychiatric Disorders: delirium, disorientation
Renal and Urinary Disorders: interstitial nephritis
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: interstitial pneumonia Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: severe dermatologic reactions including bullous and other drug eruptions of the skin, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, erythema multiforme
Table 2 includes drugs with clinically important drug interactions and interaction with diagnostics when administered concomitantly with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets and instructions for preventing or managing them.
Consult the labeling of concomitantly used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with PPIs.
|Clinical Impact:||The effect of PPI on antiretroviral drugs is variable. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. |
|Intervention:||Rilpivirine-containing products: Concomitant use with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. See prescribing information.Atazanavir: See prescribing information for atazanavir for dosing information.Nelfinavir: Avoid concomitant use with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets. See prescribing information for nelfinavir.Saquinavir: See the prescribing information for saquinavir and monitor for potential saquinavir toxicities.Other antiretrovirals: See prescribing information.|
|Clinical Impact:||Increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs, including rabeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].|
|Intervention:||Monitor INR and prothrombin time. Dose adjustment of warfarin may be needed to maintain target INR range. See prescribing information for warfarin.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of rabeprazole with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. No formal drug interaction studies of methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].|
|Intervention:||A temporary withdrawal of ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets may be considered in some patients receiving high dose methotrexate administration.|
|Clinical Impact:||Potential for increased exposure of digoxin [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .|
|Intervention:||Monitor digoxin concentrations. Dose adjustment of digoxin may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for digoxin.|
|Drugs Dependent on Gastric pH for Absorption (e.g., ir on salts, erlotinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, mycophenol ate mofetil, ketoconazole , itraconazole )|
|Clinical Impact:||Rabeprazole can reduce the absorption of other drugs due to its effect on reducing intragastric acidity.|
|Intervention:||Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF): Co-administration of PPIs in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets and MMF. Use ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF.See the prescribing information for other drugs dependent on gastric pH for absorption.|
|Combination Therapy with Clarithromycin and Amoxicillin|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with other drugs can lead to serious adverse reactions, including potentially fatal arrhythmias, and are contraindicated.Amoxicillin also has drug interactions.|
|Intervention:||See Contraindications and Warnings and Precautions in prescribing information for clarithromycin.See Drug Interactions in prescribing information for amoxicillin.|
|Clinical Impact:||Potentially increased exposure of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19.|
|Intervention:||Monitor tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations. Dose adjustment of tacrolimus may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for tacrolimus.|
|Interactions with Investigations of Neuroendocrine Tumors|
|Clinical Impact :||Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to PPI-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors.|
|Intervention:||Temporarily stop ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g. for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary.|
|Interaction with Secretin Stimulation Test|
|Clinical Impact:||Hyper-response in gastrin secretion in response to secretin stimulation test, falsely suggesting gastrinoma.|
|Intervention:||Temporarily stop treatment with ACIPHEX delayed-release tablets at least 14 days before assessing to allow gastrin levels to return to baseline.|
|False Positive Urine Tests for THC|
|Clinical Impact:||There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving PPIs.|
|Intervention:||An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results.|
RxDrugLabels.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed prescription drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by RxDrugLabels.com. Every individual prescription drug label and package insert entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.