The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Anaphylactic reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)]
- Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)]
- Hepatic Dysfunction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)]
- Clostridioides difficile Associated Diarrhea (CDAD) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4)]
6.1 Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions were diarrhea/loose stools (9%), nausea (3%), skin rashes and urticaria (3%), vomiting (1%) and vaginitis (1%). Less than 3% of patients discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions, and in particular diarrhea, increased with the higher recommended dose. Other less frequently reported adverse reactions (less than 1%) include: Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, and headache.
In pediatric patients (aged 2 months to 12 years), 1 U.S./Canadian clinical trial was conducted which compared 45/6.4 mg/kg/day (divided every 12 hours) of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for 10 days versus 40/10 mg/kg/day (divided every 8 hours) of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for 10 days in the treatment of acute otitis media. A total of 575 patients were enrolled, and only the suspension formulations were used in this trial. Overall, the adverse reactions seen were comparable to that noted above; however, there were differences in the rates of diarrhea, skin rashes/urticaria, and diaper area rashes [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.2)].
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during postmarketing use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium.
Indigestion, gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black “hairy” tongue, mucocutaneous candidiasis, enterocolitis, and hemorrhagic/pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4)].
Immune: Hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock), angioedema, serum sickness-like reactions (urticaria or skin rash accompanied by arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and frequently fever), hypersensitivity vasculitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)].
Skin and Appendages: Rashes, pruritus, urticaria, erythema multiforme, SJS, TEN, DRESS, AGEP, exfoliative dermatitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)].
Liver: Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice, increases in serum transaminases (AST and/or ALT), serum bilirubin, and/or alkaline phosphatase, has been reported with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. It has been reported more commonly in the elderly, in males, or in patients on prolonged treatment. The histologic findings on liver biopsy have consisted of predominantly cholestatic, hepatocellular, or mixed cholestatic hepatocellular changes. The onset of signs/symptoms of hepatic dysfunction may occur during or several weeks after therapy has been discontinued. The hepatic dysfunction, which may be severe, is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4.2), WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)].
Renal: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, and crystalluria have been reported [see OVERDOSAGE (10)].
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. Thrombocytosis was noted in less than 1% of the patients treated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. There have been reports of increased prothrombin time in patients receiving amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium and anticoagulant therapy concomitantly [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.2)].
Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, behavioral changes, aseptic meningitis, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, insomnia, and reversible hyperactivity have been reported.
Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid. Concurrent use with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may result in increased and prolonged blood concentrations of amoxicillin. Co-administration of probenecid is not recommended.
7.2 Oral Anticoagulants
Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.
7.4 Oral Contraceptives
Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.
7.5 Effects on Laboratory Tests
High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST®, Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used.
Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate) at oral doses up to 1200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. The amoxicillin doses in rats and mice (based on body surface area) were approximately 4 and 2 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (875 mg every 12 hours). For clavulanate, these dose multiples were approximately 9 and 4 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (125 mg every 8 hours). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
8.2 Labor and Delivery
Oral ampicillin-class antibacterials are poorly absorbed during labor. It is not known whether use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood of the necessity for an obstetrical intervention.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium use by nursing mothers may lead to sensitization of infants. Caution should be exercised when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is administered to a nursing woman.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension and chewable tablets have been established in pediatric patients. Use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets in pediatric patients is supported by evidence from studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets in adults with additional data from a study of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension in pediatric patients aged 2 months to 12 years with acute otitis media [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.2)].
Because of incompletely developed renal function in neonates and young infants, the elimination of amoxicillin may be delayed; clavulanate elimination is unaltered in this age group. Dosing of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be modified in pediatric patients aged less than 12 weeks (less than 3 months) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.3)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the 3,119 patients in an analysis of clinical studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, 32% were greater than or equal to 65 years old, and 14% were greater than or equal to 75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
8.6 Renal Impairment
Amoxicillin is primarily eliminated by the kidney and dosage adjustment is usually required in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR less than 30 mL/min). See Patients with Renal Impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.4)] for specific recommendations in patients with renal impairment.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison-control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms1.
Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in patients after overdosage with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium.
Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium crystalluria.
Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may be removed from circulation by hemodialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.4)].
Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets, USP are an oral antibacterial combination consisting of amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid). Amoxicillin USP is an analog of ampicillin, derived from the basic penicillin nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid. The amoxicillin molecular formula is C16H19N3O5S•3H2O, and the molecular weight is 419.46. Chemically, amoxicillin is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-Amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate and may be represented structurally as:
Clavulanic acid is produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a beta-lactam structurally related to the penicillins and possesses the ability to inactivate some beta-lactamases by blocking the active sites of these enzymes. The clavulanate potassium molecular formula is C8H8KNO5, and the molecular weight is 237.25. Chemically, clavulanate potassium is potassium (Z)(2R,5R)-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane-2-carboxylate and may be represented structurally as:
• 250 mg/125 mg: Each tablet contains 250 mg of amoxicillin USP as the trihydrate, and 125 mg of clavulanic acid (equivalent to 149 mg of clavulanate potassium).
• 500 mg/125 mg: Each tablet contains 500 mg of amoxicillin USP as the trihydrate, and 125 mg of clavulanic acid (equivalent to 149 mg of clavulanate potassium).
• 875 mg/125 mg: Each tablet contains 875 mg of amoxicillin USP as the trihydrate, and 125 mg of clavulanic acid (equivalent to 149 mg of clavulanate potassium).
Colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, surelease clear (aqueous ethyl cellulose dispersion), and titanium dioxide. Each tablet of amoxicillin and clavulanate contains 0.63 mEq potassium.
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