Prescription Drug Information: AMOXICILLIN AND CLAVULANATE POTASSIUM

AMOXICILLIN AND CLAVULANATE POTASSIUM — amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet, film coated
AMOXICILLIN AND CLAVULANATE POTASSIUM — clavulanate potassium and amoxicillin tablet, film coated
Micro Labs Limited

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets USP, and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets USP is a combination penicillin-class antibacterial and beta-lactamase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below*:

1.1 Lower Respiratory Tract Infections


– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

1.2 Acute Bacterial Otitis Media


– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

1.3 Sinusitis


– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

1.4 Skin and Skin Structure Infections


– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella species.

1.5 Urinary Tract Infections


– caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of E. coli , Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species.

1.6 Limitations of Use


– When susceptibility test results show susceptibility to amoxicillin, USP, indicating no beta-lactamase production, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets USP should not be used.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may be taken without regard to meals; however, absorption of clavulanate potassium is enhanced when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is administered at the start of a meal. To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be taken at the start of a meal.

2.1 Adults

The usual adult dose is one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 12 hours or one 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 8 hours. For more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the dose should be one 875 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 12 hours or one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet every 8 hours. Adults who have difficulty swallowing may be given the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL or 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension in place of the 500 mg/125 mg tablet. The 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL suspension or the 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL suspension may be used in place of the 875 mg/125 mg tablet.

Two 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should not be substituted for one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet. Since both the 250 mg/125 mg and 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg/125 mg tablets are not equivalent to one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet.

The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet should not be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable. The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt). The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid, whereas the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid.

2.2 Pediatric Patients

Based on the amoxicillin component, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be dosed as follows:

Neonates and Infants Aged <12 weeks (<3 months): The recommended dose of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, based on the amoxicillin component. Experience with the 200 mg/5 mL formulation in this age group is limited, and thus, use of the 125 mg/5 mL oral suspension is recommended.

Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older: See dosing regimens provided in Table 1. The every 12 hour regimen is recommended as it is associated with significantly less diarrhea [see Clinical Studies ( 14.2)] .

Table 1: Dosing in Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older

INFECTION DOSING REGIMEN
Every 12 hours Every 12 hours
200 mg/5 mL or 400 mg/5 mL oral suspension a 125 mg/5 mL or 250 mg/5 mL oral suspension a
Otitis media b , sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and more severe infections 45 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hours
Less severe infections 25 mg/kg/day every 12 hours 20 mg/kg/day every 8 hours

a Each strength of suspension of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is available as a chewable tablet for use by older children.

b Duration of therapy studied and recommended for acute otitis media is 10 days.

Patients Weighing 40 kg or More: Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations.

The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should not be used until the child weighs at least 40 kg, due to the different amoxicillin to clavulanic acid ratios in the 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets (250/125) versus the 250 mg/62.5 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets (Chewable).

2.3 Patients with Renal Impairment


Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe. Renal impairment patients with a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min should not receive the 875 mg/125 mg dose. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. Hemodialysis patients should receive 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

250 mg/125 mg Tablets: White to off-white colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with “I 05” on one side and plain on the other side. Each tablet contains 250 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.

500 mg/125 mg Tablets: White to off-white colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with “I 06” on one side and plain on the other side. Each tablet contains 500 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.
875 mg/125 mg Tablets: white to off-white colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with “I 07” on one side score line on the other side. Each tablet contains 875 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 125 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt.

The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet should NOT be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable and the 250 mg/125 mg tablet should not be used in children weighing less than 40 kg. The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid. The 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid whereas the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid.

Two 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should NOT be substituted for one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet. Since both the 250 mg/125 mg and 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are not equivalent to one 500 mg/125 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions


Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin, clavulanate or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).

4.2 Cholestatic Jaundice/Hepatic Dysfunction


Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions


Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials, including amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

5.2 Hepatic Dysfunction


Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice has been associated with the use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Hepatic toxicity is usually reversible; however, deaths have been reported. Hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals in patients with hepatic impairment.

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