Prescription Drug Information: Aripiprazole (Page 3 of 8)

5.7 Pathological Gambling and Other Compulsive Behaviors

Post-marketing case reports suggest that patients can experience intense urges, particularly for gambling, and the inability to control these urges while taking aripiprazole. Other compulsive urges, reported less frequently include: sexual urges, shopping, eating or binge eating, and other impulsive or compulsive behaviors. Because patients may not recognize these behaviors as abnormal, it is important for prescribers to ask patients or their caregivers specifically about the development of new or intense gambling urges, compulsive sexual urges, compulsive shopping, binge or compulsive eating, or other urges while being treated with aripiprazole. It should be noted that impulse-control symptoms can be associated with the underlying disorder. In some cases, although not all, urges were reported to have stopped when the dose was reduced or the medication was discontinued. Compulsive behaviors may result in harm to the patient and others if not recognized. Consider dose reduction or stopping the medication if a patient develops such urges.

5.8 Orthostatic Hypotension

Aripiprazole may cause orthostatic hypotension, perhaps due to its α1-adrenergic receptor antagonism. The incidence of orthostatic hypotension-associated events from short-term, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients on oral aripiprazole (n=2467) included (aripiprazole incidence, placebo incidence) orthostatic hypotension (1%, 0.3%), postural dizziness (0.5%, 0.3%), and syncope (0.5%, 0.4%); of pediatric patients 6 to 18 years of age (n=732) on oral aripiprazole included orthostatic hypotension (0.5%, 0%), postural dizziness (0.4%, 0 %), and syncope (0.2%, 0%)[see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

The incidence of a significant orthostatic change in blood pressure (defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mmHg accompanied by an increase in heart rate ≥25 bpm when comparing standing to supine values) for aripiprazole was not meaningfully different from placebo (aripiprazole incidence, placebo incidence): in adult oral aripiprazole-treated patients (4%, 2%), in pediatric oral aripiprazole-treated patients aged 6 to 18 years (0.4%, 1%).

Aripiprazole should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications) [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5.9 Falls

Antipsychotics, including aripiprazole, may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, motor and sensory instability, which may lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy.

5.10 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis

In clinical trials and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including aripiprazole. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.
Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC)/absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. In patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC/ANC or drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia, perform a complete blood count (CBC) frequently during the first few months of therapy. In such patients, consider discontinuation of aripiprazole at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Monitor patients with clinically significant neutropenia for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treat promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Discontinue aripiprazole in patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) and follow their WBC counts until recovery.

5.11 Seizures/Convulsions

In short-term, placebo-controlled trials, patients with a history of seizures excluded seizures/convulsions occurred in 0.1% (3/2467) of undiagnosed adult patients treated with oral aripiprazole, in 0.1% (1/732) of pediatric patients (6 to 18 years).

As with other antipsychotic drugs, aripiprazole should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.

5.12 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment

Aripiprazole, like other antipsychotics, may have the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. For example, in short-term, placebo-controlled trials, somnolence (including sedation) was reported as follows (Aripiprazole incidence, placebo incidence): in adult patients (n=2467) treated with oral aripiprazole (11%, 6%), in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 (n=611) (24%, 6%). Somnolence (including sedation) led to discontinuation in 0.3% (8/2467) of adult patients and 3% (20/732) of pediatric patients (6 to 18 years) on oral aripiprazole in short-term, placebo-controlled trials.

Despite the relatively modest increased incidence of these events compared to placebo, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with aripiprazole does not affect them adversely.

5.13 Body Temperature Regulation

Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing aripiprazole for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, (e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.14 Suicide

The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in psychotic illnesses, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for aripiprazole should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

5.15 Dysphagia

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use, including aripiprazole. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, in particular those with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia. Aripiprazole and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
• Increased M• ortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
• Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
• Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
• Tardive Dyskinesia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
• Metabolic Changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
• Pathological Gambling and Other Compulsive Behaviors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
• Orthostatic Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8)]
• Falls [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
• Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
• Seizures/Convulsions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
• Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
• Body Temperature Regulation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]
• Suicide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)]
• Dysphagia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)]

The most common adverse reactions in adult patients in clinical trials (≥10%) were nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, dizziness, akathisia, anxiety, insomnia, and restlessness.
The most common adverse reactions in the pediatric clinical trials (≥10%) were somnolence, headache, vomiting, extrapyramidal disorder, fatigue, increased appetite, insomnia, nausea, nasopharyngitis, and weight increased.
Aripiprazole has been evaluated for safety in 13,543 adult patients who participated in multiple-dose, clinical trials in schizophrenia, other indications, Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, Parkinson’s disease, and alcoholism, and who had approximately 7619 patient-years of exposure to oral aripiprazole and 749 patients with exposure to aripiprazole injection. A total of 3390 patients were treated with oral aripiprazole for at least 180 days and 1933 patients treated with oral aripiprazole had at least 1 year of exposure.
Aripiprazole has been evaluated for safety in 1,686 patients (6 to 18 years) who participated in multiple-dose, clinical trials in schizophrenia, or other indications and who had approximately 1,342 patient-years of exposure to oral aripiprazole. A total of 959 pediatric patients were treated with oral aripiprazole for at least 180 days and 556 pediatric patients treated with oral aripiprazole had at least 1 year of exposure.
The conditions and duration of treatment with aripiprazole included (in overlapping categories) double-blind, comparative and noncomparative open-label studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, fixed- and flexible-dose studies, and short- and longer-term exposure.

Additional pediatric use information is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Adult Patients with Schizophrenia
The following findings are based on a pool of five placebo-controlled trials (four 4-week and one 6-week) in which oral aripiprazole was administered in doses ranging from 2 to 30 mg/day.
Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions
The only commonly observed adverse reaction associated with the use of aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) was akathisia (aripiprazole 8%; placebo 4%).
Less Common Adverse Reactions in Adults
Table 17 enumerates the pooled incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks in schizophrenia and up to 3 weeks in another indication), including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with aripiprazole (doses ≥2 mg/day) and for which the incidence in patients treated with aripiprazole was greater than the incidence in patients treated with placebo in the combined dataset.
Table 17: Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials in Adult Patients Treated with Oral Aripiprazole

System Organ Class Percentage of Patients Reporting Reactiona
Preferred Term Aripiprazole (n=1843) Placebo (n=1166)
Eye Disorders
Blurred Vision 3 1
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nausea 15 11
Constipation 11 7
Vomiting 11 6
Dyspepsia 9 7
Dry Mouth 5 4
Toothache 4 3
Abdominal Discomfort 3 2
Stomach Discomfort 3 2
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Fatigue 6 4
Pain 3 2
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
Musculoskeletal Stiffness 4 3
Pain in Extremity 4 2
Myalgia 2 1
Muscle Spasms 2 1
Nervous System Disorders
Headache 27 23
Dizziness 10 7
Akathisia 10 4
Sedation 7 4
Extrapyramidal Disorder 5 3
Tremor 5 3
Somnolence 5 3
Psychiatric Disorders
Agitation 19 17
Insomnia 18 13
Anxiety 17 13
Restlessness 5 3
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders
Pharyngolaryngeal Pain 3 2
Cough 3 2
a Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.

An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any clear evidence of differential adverse reaction incidence on the basis of age, gender, or race.

Pediatric Patients (13 to 17 years) with Schizophrenia
The following findings are based on one 6-week, placebo-controlled trial in which oral aripiprazole was administered in doses ranging from 2 to 30 mg/day.
Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment
The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions between aripiprazole-treated and placebo-treated pediatric patients (13 to 17 years) was 5% and 2%, respectively.
Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions
Commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of aripiprazole in adolescent patients with schizophrenia (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) were extrapyramidal disorder, somnolence, and tremor.

Less Common Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients (6 to 18 years) with Schizophrenia, or Other Indication
Table 22 enumerates the pooled incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks in schizophrenia, up to 4 weeks in one indication, and up to 8 weeks in another indication and up to 10 weeks in another indication), including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of pediatric patients treated with aripiprazole (doses ≥2 mg/day) and for which the incidence in patients treated with aripiprazole was greater than the incidence in patients treated with placebo.

Table 22: Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Pediatric Patients (6 to 18 years) Treated with Oral Aripiprazole a Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of pediatric patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.

System Organ Class Percentage of Patients Reporting Reactiona
Preferred Term Aripiprazole (n=732) Placebo (n=370)
Eye Disorders
Blurred Vision 3 0
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Abdominal Discomfort 2 1
Vomiting 8 7
Nausea 8 4
Diarrhea 4 3
Salivary Hypersecretion 4 1
Abdominal Pain Upper 3 2
Constipation 2 2
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Fatigue 10 2
Pyrexia 4 1
Irritability 2 1
Asthenia 2 1
Infections and Infestations
Nasopharyngitis 6 3
Investigations
Weight Increased 3 1
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Increased Appetite 7 3
Decreased Appetite 5 4
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
Musculoskeletal Stiffness 2 1
Muscle Rigidity 2 1
Nervous System Disorders
Somnolence 16 4
Headache 12 10
Sedation 9 2
Tremor 9 1
Extrapyramidal Disorder 6 1
Akathisia 6 4
Drooling 3 0
Lethargy 3 0
Dizziness 3 2
Dystonia 2 1
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders
Epistaxis 2 1
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Rash 2 1
a Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of pediatric patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.

Dose-Related Adverse Reactions
Schizophrenia
Dose response relationships for the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events were evaluated from four trials in adult patients with schizophrenia comparing various fixed doses (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg/day) of oral aripiprazole to placebo. This analysis, stratified by study, indicated that the only adverse reaction to have a possible dose response relationship, and then most prominent only with 30 mg, was somnolence [including sedation]; (incidences were placebo, 7.1%; 10 mg, 8.5%; 15 mg, 8.7%; 20 mg, 7.5%; 30 mg, 12.6%).
In the study of pediatric patients (13 to 17 years of age) with schizophrenia, three common adverse reactions appeared to have a possible dose response relationship: extrapyramidal disorder (incidences were placebo, 5.0%; 10 mg, 13.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); somnolence (incidences were placebo, 6.0%; 10 mg, 11.0%; 30 mg, 21.6%); and tremor (incidences were placebo, 2.0%; 10 mg, 2.0%; 30 mg, 11.8%).

Extrapyramidal Symptoms

Schizophrenia
In short-term, placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia in adults, the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for aripiprazole-treated patients was 13% vs. 12% for placebo; and the incidence of akathisia-related events for aripiprazole-treated patients was 8% vs. 4% for placebo. In the short-term, placebo-controlled trial of schizophrenia in pediatric patients (13 to 17 years), the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for aripiprazole-treated patients was 25% vs. 7% for placebo; and the incidence of akathisia-related events for aripiprazole-treated patients was 9% vs. 6% for placebo.
Objectively collected data from those trials was collected on the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (for EPS), the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia), and the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales (for dyskinesias). In the adult schizophrenia trials, the objectively collected data did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo, with the exception of the Barnes Akathisia Scale (aripiprazole, 0.08; placebo, –0.05). In the pediatric (13 to 17 years) schizophrenia trial, the objectively collected data did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo, with the exception of the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (aripiprazole, 0.24; placebo, –0.29).
Similarly, in a long-term (26-week), placebo-controlled trial of schizophrenia in adults, objectively collected data on the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (for EPS), the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia), and the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales (for dyskinesias) did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo.

Dystonia
Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups.

Additional Findings Observed in Clinical Trials

Adverse Reactions in Long-Term, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials
The adverse reactions reported in a 26-week, double-blind trial comparing oral aripiprazole and placebo in patients with schizophrenia were generally consistent with those reported in the short-term, placebo-controlled trials, except for a higher incidence of tremor [8% (12/153) for aripiprazole vs. 2% (3/153) for placebo]. In this study, the majority of the cases of tremor were of mild intensity (8/12 mild and 4/12 moderate), occurred early in therapy (9/12 ≤49 days), and were of limited duration (7/12 ≤10 days). Tremor infrequently led to discontinuation (<1%) of aripiprazole. In addition, in a long-term (52 week), active-controlled study, the incidence of tremor was 5% (40/859) for aripiprazole.

Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Aripiprazole
The following listing does not include reactions: 1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, 2) for which a drug cause was remote, 3) which were so general as to be uninformative, 4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or 5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo.
Reactions are categorized by body system according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients:

Adults — Oral Administration
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders:
rare — thrombocytopenia
Cardiac Disorders:
infrequent – bradycardia, palpitations, rare – atrial flutter, cardio-respiratory arrest, atrioventricular block, atrial fibrillation, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, cardiopulmonary failure
Eye Disorders:
infrequent – photophobia; rare -diplopia
Gastrointestinal Disorders:
infrequent — gastroesophageal reflux disease
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: frequent — asthenia; infrequent – peripheral edema, chest pain; rare – face edema
Hepatobiliary Disorders:
rare — hepatitis, jaundice
Immune System Disorders:
rare -hypersensitivity

Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications:
infrequent– fall; rare – heat stroke
Investigations:
frequent — weight decreased, infrequent — hepatic enzyme increased, blood glucose increased, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, gamma glutamyl transferase increased; rare – blood prolactin increased, blood urea inceased, blood creatinine increased, blood bilirubin increased, electrocardiogram QT prolonged, glycosylated hemoglobin increased
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders:
frequent –anorexia; rare — hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: infrequent -muscular weakness, muscle tightness; rare – rhabdomyolysis, mobility decreased
Nervous System Disorders:
infrequent — parkinsonism, memory impairment, cogwheel rigidity, hypokinesia, bradykinesia; rare – akinesia, myoclonus, coordination abnormal, speech disorder, Grand Mal convulsion; <1/10,000 patients — choreoathetosis
Psychiatric Disorders:
infrequent – aggression, loss of libido, delirium; rare – libido increased, anorgasmia, tic, homicidal ideation, catatonia, sleep walking
Renal and Urinary Disorders:
rare — urinary retention, nocturia
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders:
infrequent — erectile dysfunction; rare – gynaecomastia, menstruation irregular, amenorrhea, breast pain, priapism
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: infrequent — nasal congestion, dyspnea
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:
infrequent — rash, hyperhidrosis, pruritus, photosensitivity reaction, alopecia; rare — urticaria
Vascular Disorders:
infrequent – hypotension, hypertension

Pediatric Patients — Oral Administration
Most adverse events observed in the pooled database of 1,686 pediatric patients, aged 6 to 18 years, were also observed in the adult population. Additional adverse reactions observed in the pediatric population are listed below.
Eye Disorders
infrequent - oculogyric crisis
Gastrointestinal Disorders:
infrequent -tongue dry, tongue spasm
Investigations:
frequent — blood insulin increased
Nervous System Disorders:
infrequent - sleep talking
Renal and Urinary Disorders
frequent – enuresis
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:
infrequent - hirsutism

Additional pediatric use information is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

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