The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of aripiprazole. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: occurrences of allergic reaction (anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, laryngospasm, pruritus/urticaria, or oropharyngeal spasm), pathological gambling, hiccups, blood glucose fluctuation, oculogyric crisis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).
Table 25: Clinically Important Drug Interactions with Aripiprazole:
|Concomitant Drug Name or Drug Class||Clinical Rationale||Clinical Recommendation|
|Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (e.g., itraconazole, clarithromycin) or strong CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g., quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine)||The concomitant use of aripiprazole with strong CYP 3A4 or CYP2D6 inhibitors increased the exposure of aripiprazole compared to the use of aripiprazole alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].||With concomitant use of aripiprazole with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor or CYP2D6 inhibitor, reduce the aripiprazole dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].|
|Strong CYP3A4 Inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, rifampin)||The concomitant use of aripiprazole and carbamazepine decreased the exposure of aripiprazole compared to the use of aripiprazole alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].||With concomitant use of aripiprazole with a strong CYP3A4 inducer, consider increasing the aripiprazole dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].|
|Antihypertensive Drugs||Due to its alpha adrenergic antagonism, aripiprazole has the potential to enhance the effect of certain antihypertensive agents.||Monitor blood pressure and adjust dose accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].|
|Benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam)||The intensity of sedation was greater with the combination of oral aripiprazole and lorazepam as compared to that observed with aripiprazole alone. The orthostatic hypotension observed was greater with the combination as compared to that observed with lorazepam alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].||Monitor sedation and blood pressure. Adjust dose accordingly.|
Based on pharmacokinetic studies, no dosage adjustment of aripiprazole is required when administered concomitantly with famotidine, valproate, lorazepam.
In addition, no dosage adjustment is necessary for substrates of CYP2D6 (e.g., dextromethorphan, fluoxetine, paroxetine, or venlafaxine), CYP2C9 (e.g., warfarin), CYP2C19 (e.g., omeprazole, warfarin), or CYP3A4 (e.g., dextromethorphan) when co-administered with aripiprazole. Additionally, no dosage adjustment is necessary for valproate, lamotrigine, lorazepam, or sertraline when co-administered with aripiprazole. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to atypical antipsychotics, including aripiprazole, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by contacting the National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics at 1-866-961-2388 or visit http://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including aripiprazole, during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery (see Clinical Considerations). Overall available data from published epidemiologic studies of pregnant women exposed to aripiprazole have not established a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). There are risks to the mother associated with untreated schizophrenia and with exposure to antipsychotics, including aripiprazole, during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
In animal reproduction studies, oral and intravenous aripiprazole administration during organogenesis in rats and/or rabbits at doses 10 and 19 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 30 mg/day based on mg/m2 body surface area, produced fetal death, decreased fetal weight, undescended testicles, delayed skeletal ossification, skeletal abnormalities, and diaphragmatic hernia. Oral and intravenous aripiprazole administration during the pre- and post-natal period in rats at doses 10 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area, produced prolonged gestation, stillbirths, decreased pup weight, and decreased pup survival (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
There is a risk to the mother from untreated schizophrenia, including increased risk of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Schizophrenia is associated with increased adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth. It is not known if this is a direct result of the illness or other comorbid factors.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms, including agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder have been reported in neonates who were exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including aripiprazole) during the third trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms have varied in severity. Monitor neonates for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms, and manage symptoms appropriately. Some neonates recovered within hours or days without specific treatment; others required prolonged hospitalization.
Published data from observational studies, birth registries, and case reports on the use of atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy do not report a clear association with antipsychotics and major birth defects. A retrospective study from a Medicaid database of 9258 women exposed to antipsychotics during pregnancy did not indicate an overall increased risk for major birth defects.
In animal studies, aripiprazole demonstrated developmental toxicity, including possible teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits.
In pregnant rats treated orally with aripiprazole during organogenesis at doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day, which are approximately 1, 3 and 10 times the MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m2 body surface area, a slight prolongation of gestation and delay in fetal development, as evidenced by decreased fetal weight and undescended testes, were observed at 10 times the MRHD. Delayed skeletal ossification was observed at 3 and 10 times the MRHD. Delivered offspring had increased incidences of hepatodiaphragmatic nodules and diaphragmatic hernia were observed at 10 times the MRHD (the other dose groups were not examined for these findings). Postnatally, delayed vaginal opening was seen at 3 and 10 times the MRHD. Impaired reproductive performance (decreased fertility rate, corpora lutea, implants, live fetuses, and increased post-implantation loss, likely mediated through effects on female offspring) were observed at 10 times the MRHD; however, there was no evidence to suggest that these developmental effects were secondary to maternal toxicity.
In pregnant rabbits treated orally with aripiprazole during organogenesis at doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day which are 6, 19, and 65 times the MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m2 body surface area, decreased maternal food consumption, and increased abortions as well as increased fetal mortality were observed at 65 times the MHRD. Decreased fetal weight and increased incidence of fused sternebrae were observed at 19 and 65 times the MRHD.
In rats treated orally with aripiprazole peri- and post-natally from gestation day 17 through postpartum day 21 at doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day which are 1, 3, and 10 times the MRHD of 30 mg/day based on mg/m2 body surface area slight maternal toxicity and slightly prolonged gestation were observed at 10 times the MHRD. An increase in stillbirths and, decreases in pup weight (persisting into adulthood) and survival were also seen at this dose.
Limited data from published literature report the presence of aripiprazole in human breast milk, at relative infant doses ranging between 0.7% to 8.3% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. There are reports of poor weight gain in breastfed infants exposed to aripiprazole and reports of inadequate milk supply in lactating women taking aripiprazole.
The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for aripiprazole and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from aripiprazole or from the underlying maternal condition.
The pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole in pediatric patients, 10 to 17 years of age, were similar to those in adults after correcting for the differences in body weight [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients with schizophrenia were established in a 6-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 202 pediatric patients aged 13 to 17 years [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Although maintenance efficacy in pediatric patients has not been systematically evaluated, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of aripiprazole pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and pediatric patients.
Information describing a clinical study in which efficacy was not demonstrated in patients ages 6 to 17 years is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole). Additional pediatric use information in patients ages 6 to 18 years is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information.
Juvenile Animal Studies
Aripiprazole in juvenile rats caused mortality, CNS clinical signs, impaired memory and learning, and delayed sexual maturation when administered at oral doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day from weaning (21 days old) through maturity (80 days old). At 40 mg/kg/day, mortality, decreased activity, splayed hind limbs, hunched posture, ataxia, tremors and other CNS signs were observed in both genders. In addition, delayed sexual maturation was observed in males. At all doses and in a dose-dependent manner, impaired memory and learning, increased motor activity, and histopathology changes in the pituitary (atrophy), adrenals (adrenocortical hypertrophy), mammary glands (hyperplasia and increased secretion), and female reproductive organs (vaginal mucification, endometrial atrophy, decrease in ovarian corpora lutea) were observed. The changes in female reproductive organs were considered secondary to the increase in prolactin serum levels. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 10 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC0-24 ) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period, and most of the drug effects in juvenile rats were also observed in adult rats from previously conducted studies.
Aripiprazole in juvenile dogs (2 months old) caused CNS clinical signs of tremors, hypoactivity, ataxia, recumbency and limited use of hind limbs when administered orally for 6 months at 3, 10, 30 mg/kg/day. Mean body weight and weight gain were decreased up to 18% in females in all drug groups relative to control values. A NOAEL could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 3 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC0-24 ) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period.
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