Prescription Drug Information: Atorvastatin Calcium (Page 3 of 9)

Incremental Decrease in Endpoints through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Study (IDEAL)

In IDEAL [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 8,888 subjects (age range 26 to 80 years, 19% women; 99.3% Caucasians, 0.4% Asians, 0.3% Blacks, 0.04% other) treated with atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day (n=4439) or simvastatin 20 to 40 mg daily (n=4449), there was no difference in the overall frequency of adverse reactions or serious adverse reactions between the treatment groups during a median follow-up of 4.8 years.

Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL)

In SPARCL involving 4731 subjects (age range 21 to 92 years, 40% women; 93.3% Caucasians, 3% Blacks, 0.6% Asians, 3.1% other) without clinically evident CHD but with a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within the previous 6 months treated with atorvastatin calcium 80 mg (n=2365) or placebo (n=2366) for a median follow-up of 4.9 years, there was a higher incidence of persistent hepatic transaminase elevations (≥ 3 x ULN twice within 4 to 10 days) in the atorvastatin group (0.9%) compared to placebo (0.1%). Elevations of CK (>10 x ULN) were rare, but were higher in the atorvastatin group (0.1%) compared to placebo (0%). Diabetes was reported as an adverse reaction in 144 subjects (6.1%) in the atorvastatin group and 89 subjects (3.8%) in the placebo group [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

In a post-hoc analysis, atorvastatin calcium 80 mg reduced the incidence of ischemic stroke (218/2365, 9.2% vs. 274/2366, 11.6%) and increased the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke (55/2365, 2.3% vs. 33/2366, 1.4%) compared to placebo. The incidence of fatal hemorrhagic stroke was similar between groups (17 atorvastatin calcium vs. 18 placebo). The incidence of non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes was significantly greater in the atorvastatin group (38 non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes) as compared to the placebo group (16 non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes). Subjects who entered the study with a hemorrhagic stroke appeared to be at increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke [7 (16%) atorvastatin calcium vs. 2 (4%) placebo].

There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality: 216 (9.1%) in the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day group vs. 211 (8.9%) in the placebo group. The proportions of subjects who experienced cardiovascular death were numerically smaller in the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg group (3.3%) than in the placebo group (4.1%). The proportions of subjects who experienced non-cardiovascular death were numerically larger in the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg group (5%) than in the placebo group (4%).

Adverse Reactions from Clinical Studies of Atorvastatin Calcium in Pediatric Patients

In a 26-week controlled study in boys and post-menarchal girls with HeFH (ages 10 years to 17 years) (n=140, 31% female; 92% Caucasians, 1.6% Blacks, 1.6% Asians, 4.8% other), the safety and tolerability profile of atorvastatin calcium 10 to 20 mg daily, as an adjunct to diet to reduce total cholesterol, LDL-C, and apo B levels, was generally similar to that of placebo [see Use in Special Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.6)].

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of atorvastatin calcium. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions associated with atorvastatin calcium therapy reported since market introduction, that are not listed above, regardless of causality assessment, include the following: anaphylaxis, angioneurotic edema, bullous rashes (including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis), rhabdomyolysis, myositis, fatigue, tendon rupture, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure, dizziness, depression, peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis and interstitial lung disease.

There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks).

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

The risk of myopathy during treatment with statins is increased with concurrent administration of fibric acid derivatives, lipid-modifying doses of niacin, cyclosporine, or strong CYP 3A4 inhibitors (e.g., clarithromycin, HIV and HCV protease inhibitors, and itraconazole) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.1 Strong Inhibitors of CYP3A4

Atorvastatin calcium is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. Concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium with strong inhibitors of CYP 3A4 can lead to increases in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The extent of interaction and potentiation of effects depend on the variability of effect on CYP 3A4.

Clarithromycin

Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium 80 mg with clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) compared to that of atorvastatin calcium alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking clarithromycin, caution should be used when the atorvastatin calcium dose exceeds 20 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Combination of Protease Inhibitors

Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium with several combinations of protease inhibitors [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ]. In patients taking tipranavir plus ritonavir or glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir, concomitant use of atorvastatin should be avoided. In patients taking lopinavir plus ritonavir, or simeprevir, use the lowest necessary atorvastatin dose. In patients taking saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, or elbasvir plus grazoprevir, the dose of atorvastatin should not exceed 20 mg. In patients taking nelfinavir the dose of atorvastatin should not exceed 40 mg and close clinical monitoring is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Itraconazole

Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium 40 mg and itraconazole 200 mg [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking itraconazole, caution should be used when the atorvastatin calcium dose exceeds 20 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.2 Grapefruit Juice

Contains one or more components that inhibit CYP 3A4 and can increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, especially with excessive grapefruit juice consumption (>1.2 liters per day).

7.3 Cyclosporine

Atorvastatinis a substrate of the hepatic transporters. Atorvastatin-metabolites are substrates of the OATP1B1 transporter. Inhibitors of the OATP1B1 (e.g., cyclosporine) can increase the bioavailability of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium 10 mg and cyclosporine 5.2 mg/kg/day compared to that of atorvastatin calcium alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

The co-administration of atorvastatin calcium with cyclosporine should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.4 Letermovir

Concomitant administration of atorvastatin 20 mg and letermovir 480 mg daily resulted in an increase in exposure to atorvastatin (ratio of AUC: 3.29) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Letermovir inhibits efflux transporters P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, OAT2 and hepatic transporter OATP1B1/1B3, thus it increases exposure to atorvastatin. Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin calcium daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].

The magnitude of CYP3A- and OATP1B1/1B3-mediated drug interactions on co-administered drugs may be different when letermovir is co-administered with cyclosporine. Use of atorvastatin calcium is not recommended in patients taking letermovir co-administered with cyclosporine.

7.5 Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir; Elbasvir and Grazoprevir

Concomitant administration of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir or elbasvir and grazoprevir may lead to increased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and an increased risk of myopathy.

Coadministration of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir with atorvastatin increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by 8.3-fold due in part to BCRP, OATP1B1/1B3, and CYP3A inhibition; therefore, coadministration of atorvastatin calcium in patients receiving concomitant medications with products containing glecaprevir and pibrentasvir is not recommended.

Coadministration of elbasvir and grazoprevir with atorvastatin increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin by 1.9-fold due in part to BCRP, OATP1B1/1B3, and CYP3A inhibition; therefore, the dose of atorvastatin calcium should not exceed 20 mg daily in patients receiving concomitant medications with products containing elbasvir and grazoprevir [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.6), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] .

7.6 Gemfibrozil

Due to an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are co-administered with gemfibrozil, concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium with gemfibrozil should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.7 Other Fibrates

Because it is known that the risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concurrent administration of other fibrates, atorvastatin calcium should be administered with caution when used concomitantly with other fibrates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.8 Niacin

The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when atorvastatin calcium is used in combination with niacin; a reduction in atorvastatin calcium dosage should be considered in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.9 Rifampin or other Inducers of Cytochrome P450 3A4

Concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium with inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 (e.g., efavirenz, rifampin) can lead to variable reductions in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Due to the dual interaction mechanism of rifampin, simultaneous co-administration of atorvastatin calcium with rifampin is recommended, as delayed administration of atorvastatin calcium after administration of rifampin has been associated with a significant reduction in atorvastatin plasma concentrations.

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