Prescription Drug Information: Azilect (Page 3 of 6)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of AZILECT. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

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7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Meperidine

Serious, sometimes fatal reactions have been precipitated with concomitant use of meperidine (e.g., Demerol and other tradenames) and MAO inhibitors including selective MAO-B inhibitors [see Contraindications (4)].

7.2 Dextromethorphan

The concomitant use of AZILECT and dextromethorphan was not allowed in clinical studies. The combination of MAO inhibitors and dextromethorphan has been reported to cause brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior. Therefore, in view of AZILECT’s MAO inhibitory activity, dextromethorphan is contraindicated for use with AZILECT [see Contraindications (4)].

7.3 MAO Inhibitors

AZILECT is contraindicated for use with other MAO inhibitors because of the increased risk of nonselective MAO inhibition that may lead to a hypertensive crisis [see Contraindications (4)].

7.4 Sympathomimetic Medications

The concomitant use of AZILECT and sympathomimetic medications was not allowed in clinical studies. Severe hypertensive reactions have followed the administration of sympathomimetics and nonselective MAO inhibitors. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking the recommended dose of AZILECT and sympathomimetic medications. Severe hypertension has been reported in patients taking the recommended dose of AZILECT and ophthalmic drops containing sympathomimetic medications.

Because AZILECT is a selective MAOI, hypertensive reactions are not ordinarily expected with the concomitant use of sympathomimetic medications. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when concomitantly using recommended doses of AZILECT with any sympathomimetic medications including nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold remedies.

7.5 Antidepressants

Concomitant use of AZILECT with one of many classes of antidepressants (e.g., SSRIs, SNRIs, triazolopyridine, tricyclic, or tetracyclic antidepressants) is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Concomitant use of AZILECT and MAO inhibitors is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)].

7.6 Ciprofloxacin or Other CYP1A2 Inhibitors

Rasagiline plasma concentrations may increase up to 2 fold in patients using concomitant ciprofloxacin and other CYP1A2 inhibitors. This could result in increased adverse events. Patients taking concomitant ciprofloxacin or other CYP1A2 inhibitors should not exceed a dose of AZILECT 0.5 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.7 Tyramine/Rasagiline Interaction

MAO in the gastrointestinal tract and liver (primarily type A) provides protection from exogenous amines (e.g., tyramine) that have the capacity, if absorbed intact, to cause a tyramine reaction with hypertension including clinical syndromes referred to as hypertensive urgency, crisis, or emergency. Foods and medications containing large amounts of exogenous amines (e.g., from fermented cheese, herring, over-the-counter cough/cold medications) may cause release of norepinephrine resulting in a rise in systemic blood pressure.

Results of a special tyramine challenge study indicate that rasagiline is selective for MAO-B at recommended doses and can be used without dietary tyramine restriction. However, certain foods may contain very high amounts (i.e., 150 mg or greater) of tyramine and could potentially cause a hypertensive reaction in individual patients taking AZILECT due to increased sensitivity to tyramine. Selectivity for inhibiting MAO-B diminishes in a dose-related manner as the dose is progressively increased above the recommended daily doses.

There were no cases of hypertensive crisis in the clinical development program associated with 1 mg daily AZILECT treatment, in which most patients did not follow dietary tyramine restriction.

There have been postmarketing reports of patients who experienced significantly elevated blood pressure (including rare cases of hypertensive crisis) after ingestion of unknown amounts of tyramine-rich foods while taking recommended doses of AZILECT. Patients should be advised to avoid foods containing a very large amount of tyramine while taking recommended doses of AZILECT [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.8 Dopaminergic Antagonists

It is possible that dopamine antagonists, such as antipsychotics or metoclopramide, could diminish the effectiveness of AZILECT.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no adequate data on the developmental risks associated with the use of AZILECT in pregnant women. In animal studies, oral administration of rasagiline to rats during gestation and lactation resulted in decreased survival and reduced body weight in the offspring at doses similar to those used clinically. When administered to pregnant animals in combination with levodopa/carbidopa, there were increased incidences of fetal skeletal variations in rats and increases in embryofetal death and cardiovascular abnormalities in rabbits [see Data].

In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.

Data

Animal Data

In a combined mating/fertility and embryofetal development study in pregnant rats, no effect on embryofetal development was observed at oral doses up to 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the plasma exposure (AUC) in humans at the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD, 1 mg/day]).

In pregnant rabbits administered rasagiline throughout the period of organogenesis at oral doses of up to 36 mg/kg/day, no developmental toxicity was observed. At the highest dose tested, the plasma AUC was approximately 800 times that in humans at the MRHD.

In pregnant rats administered rasagiline (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mg/kg/day) orally during gestation and lactation, offspring survival was decreased and offspring body weight was reduced at 0.3 mg/kg/day and 1 mg/kg/day (10 and 16 times the plasma AUC in humans at the MRHD). The no-effect dose (0.1 mg/kg) for adverse developmental effects is similar to the MRHD on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis. The effect of rasagiline on physical and behavioral development was not adequately assessed in this study.

Rasagiline may be given as an adjunct therapy to levodopa/carbidopa treatment. In pregnant rats administered rasagiline (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mg/kg/day) and levodopa/carbidopa (80/20 mg/kg/day) (alone and in combination) orally throughout the period of organogenesis, there was an increased incidence of fetal skeletal variations in fetuses from rats treated with rasagiline in combination with levodopa/carbidopa at 1/80/20 mg/kg/day (approximately 8 times the rasagiline plasma AUC in humans at the MRHD and similar to the MRHD of levodopa/carbidopa [800/200 mg/day] on a mg/m2 basis). In pregnant rabbits dosed orally throughout the period of organogenesis with rasagiline alone (3 mg/kg) or in combination with levodopa/carbidopa (rasagiline: 0.1, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, levodopa/carbidopa: 80/20 mg/kg/day), an increase in embryofetal death was noted at rasagiline doses of 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg/day when administered in combination with levodopa/carbidopa (approximately 7 and 13 times, respectively, the rasagiline plasma AUC in humans at the MRHD). There was an increase in cardiovascular abnormalities with levodopa/carbidopa alone (similar to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) and to a greater extent when rasagiline (at all doses; 1-13 times the rasagiline plasma AUC in humans at the MRHD) was administered in combination with levodopa/carbidopa.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of rasagiline in human milk or the effects on the breastfed infant. In rats, rasagiline was shown to inhibit prolactin secretion. The clinical relevance in humans is unknown, and there are no data on the effects of rasagiline on prolactin secretion or milk production in humans.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for AZILECT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from AZILECT or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Approximately half of patients in clinical trials were 65 years and over. There were no significant differences in the safety profile of the geriatric and nongeriatric patients.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

Rasagiline plasma concentration may be increased in patients with mild (up to 2 fold, Child-Pugh score 5-6), moderate (up to 7 fold, Child-Pugh score 7-9), and severe (Child-Pugh score 10-15) hepatic impairment. Patients with mild hepatic impairment should not exceed a dose of 0.5 mg/day. AZILECT should not be used in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Renal Impairment

Dose adjustment of AZILECT is not required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment because AZILECT plasma concentrations are not increased in patients with moderate renal impairment. Rasagiline has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

9.1 Controlled Substance

AZILECT is not a controlled substance.

9.2 Abuse

Studies conducted in mice and rats did not reveal any potential for drug abuse and dependence. Clinical trials have not revealed any evidence of the potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence; however, systematic studies in humans designed to evaluate these effects have not been performed.

9.3 Dependence

Studies conducted in mice and rats did not reveal any potential for drug abuse and dependence. Clinical trials have not revealed any evidence of the potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence; however, systematic studies in humans designed to evaluate these effects have not been performed.

10 OVERDOSAGE

In a dose escalation study in patients on chronic levodopa therapy treated with 10 mg of AZILECT there were three reports of cardiovascular side effects (including hypertension and postural hypotension) which resolved following treatment discontinuation.

Although no cases of overdose have been observed with AZILECT during the clinical development program, the following description of presenting symptoms and clinical course is based upon overdose descriptions of nonselective MAO inhibitors.

The signs and symptoms of nonselective MAOI overdose may not appear immediately. Delays of up to 12 hours after ingestion of drug and the appearance of signs may occur. The peak intensity of the syndrome may not be reached until for a day following the overdose. Death has been reported following overdose; therefore, immediate hospitalization, with continuous patient observation and monitoring for at least two days following the ingestion of such drugs in overdose, is strongly recommended.

The severity of the clinical signs and symptoms of MAOI overdose varies and may be related to the amount of drug consumed. The central nervous and cardiovascular systems are prominently involved.

Signs and symptoms of MAOI overdose may include: drowsiness, dizziness, faintness, irritability, hyperactivity, agitation, severe headache, hallucinations, trismus, opisthotonos, convulsions, and coma; rapid and irregular pulse, hypertension, hypotension and vascular collapse; precordial pain, respiratory depression and failure, hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, and cool, clammy skin.

There is no specific antidote for AZILECT overdose. The following suggestions are offered based upon the assumption that AZILECT overdose may be modeled after nonselective MAO inhibitor poisoning. Treatment of overdose with nonselective MAO inhibitors is symptomatic and supportive. Respiration should be supported by appropriate measures, including management of the airway, use of supplemental oxygen, and mechanical ventilatory assistance, as required. Body temperature should be monitored closely. Intensive management of hyperpyrexia may be required. Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance is essential. For this reason, in cases of overdose with AZILECT, dietary tyramine restriction should be observed for several weeks to reduce the risk of hypertensive tyramine reaction.

A poison control center should be called for the most current treatment guidelines.

A postmarketing report described a single patient who developed a nonfatal serotonin syndrome after ingesting 100 mg of AZILECT in a suicide attempt. Another patient who was treated in error with 4 mg AZILECT daily and tramadol also developed a serotonin syndrome. One patient who was treated in error with 3 mg AZILECT daily experienced alternating episodes of vascular fluctuations consisting of hypertension and orthostatic hypotension.

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