AZILECT® tablets contain rasagiline (as the mesylate), a propargylamine-based drug indicated for the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Rasagiline mesylate is designated chemically as: 1H-Inden-1-amine, 2, 3-dihydro-N-2-propynyl-, (1R)-, methanesulfonate. The empirical formula of rasagiline mesylate is C12 H13 N•CH4 SO3 and its molecular weight is 267.34.
Its structural formula is:
Rasagiline mesylate is a white to off-white powder, freely soluble in water or ethanol and sparingly soluble in isopropanol. Each AZILECT tablet for oral administration contains 0.5 mg or 1 mg of rasagiline (equivalent to 0.78 mg or 1.56 mg of rasagiline mesylate).
Each AZILECT tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: mannitol, starch, pregelatinized starch, colloidal silicon dioxide, stearic acid, and talc.
AZILECT is a selective, irreversible MAO-B inhibitor indicated for the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. The results of a clinical trial designed to examine the effects of AZILECT on blood pressure when it is administered with increasing doses of tyramine indicates the functional selectivity can be incomplete when healthy subjects ingest large amounts of tyramine while receiving recommended doses of AZILECT. The selectivity for inhibiting MAO-B diminishes in a dose-related manner.
MAO, a flavin-containing enzyme, is classified into two major molecular species, A and B, and is localized in mitochondrial membranes throughout the body in nerve terminals, brain, liver and intestinal mucosa. MAO regulates the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in the CNS and peripheral tissues. MAO-B is the major form in the human brain. In ex vivo animal studies in brain, liver, and intestinal tissues, rasagiline was shown to be a potent, irreversible monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) selective inhibitor. Rasagiline at the recommended therapeutic dose was also shown to be a potent and irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B in platelets. The precise mechanisms of action of rasagiline are unknown. One mechanism is believed to be related to its MAO-B inhibitory activity, which causes an increase in extracellular levels of dopamine in the striatum. The elevated dopamine level and subsequent increased dopaminergic activity are likely to mediate rasagiline’s beneficial effects seen in models of dopaminergic motor dysfunction.
Tyramine Challenge Test
Results of a tyramine challenge study indicate that rasagiline at recommended doses is relatively selective for inhibiting MAO-B and can be used without dietary tyramine restriction. However, certain foods (e.g., aged cheeses, such as Stilton cheese) may contain very high amounts of tyramine (i.e., 150 mg or greater) and could potentially cause severe hypertension caused by tyramine interaction in patients taking AZILECT due to mild increased sensitivity to tyramine at recommended doses. Relative selectivity of AZILECT for inhibiting MAO-B diminished in a dose-related manner as the dose progressively increased above the highest recommended daily dose (1 mg) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7.7)].
Platelet MAO Activity in Clinical Studies
Studies in healthy subjects and in Parkinson’s disease patients have shown that rasagiline inhibits platelet MAO-B irreversibly. The inhibition lasts at least 1 week after last dose. Almost 25-35% MAO-B inhibition was achieved after a single rasagiline dose of 1 mg/day and more than 55% of MAO-B inhibition was achieved after a single rasagiline dose of 2 mg/day. Over 90% inhibition was achieved 3 days after rasagiline daily dosing at 2 mg/day and this inhibition level was maintained 3 days postdose. Multiple doses of rasagiline of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg per day resulted in complete MAO-B inhibition.
Rasagiline in the range of 1-6 mg demonstrated a more than proportional increase in AUC, while Cmax was dose proportional. Rasagiline mean steady-state half life is 3 hours but there is no correlation of pharmacokinetics with its pharmacological effect because of its irreversible inhibition of MAO-B.
Rasagiline is rapidly absorbed, reaching peak plasma concentration (Cmax) in approximately 1 hour. The absolute bioavailability of rasagiline is about 36%.
Food does not affect the Tmax of rasagiline, although Cmax and exposure (AUC) are decreased by approximately 60% and 20%, respectively, when the drug is taken with a high fat meal. Because AUC is not significantly affected, AZILECT can be administered with or without food.
The mean volume of distribution at steady-state is 87 L, indicating that the tissue binding of rasagiline is in excess of plasma protein binding. Plasma protein binding ranges from 88-94% with mean extent of binding of 61-63% to human albumin over the concentration range of 1-100 ng/mL.
Metabolism and Elimination
Rasagiline undergoes almost complete biotransformation in the liver prior to excretion. The metabolism of rasagiline proceeds through two main pathways: N-dealkylation and/or hydroxylation to yield 1-aminoindan (AI), 3-hydroxy-N-propargyl-1 aminoindan (3-OH-PAI) and 3-hydroxy-1-aminoindan (3-OH-AI). In vitro experiments indicate that both routes of rasagiline metabolism are dependent on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, with CYP1A2 being the major isoenzyme involved in rasagiline metabolism. Glucuronide conjugation of rasagiline and its metabolites, with subsequent urinary excretion, is the major elimination pathway.
After oral administration of 14 C-labeled rasagiline, elimination occurred primarily via urine and secondarily via feces (62% of total dose in urine and 7% of total dose in feces over 7 days), with a total calculated recovery of 84% of the dose
over a period of 38 days. Less than 1% of rasagiline was excreted as unchanged drug in urine.
Following repeat dose administration (7 days) of rasagiline (1 mg/day) in subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5-6), AUC and Cmax were increased by 2 fold and 1.4 fold, respectively, compared to healthy subjects. In subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 7-9), AUC and Cmax were increased by 7 fold and 2 fold, respectively, compared to healthy subjects [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Following repeat dose administration (8 days) of rasagiline (1 mg/day) in subjects with moderate renal impairment, rasagiline exposure (AUC) was similar to rasagiline exposure in healthy subjects, while the major metabolite 1-AI exposure (AUC) was increased 1.5- fold in subjects with moderate renal impairment, compared to healthy subjects. Because 1-AI is not an MAO inhibitor, no dose adjustment is needed for patients with mild and moderate renal impairment. Data are not available for patients with severe renal impairment.
Since age has little influence on rasagiline pharmacokinetics, it can be administered at the recommended dose in the elderly (≥ 65 years).
AZILECT has not been investigated in patients below 18 years of age.
The pharmacokinetic profile of rasagiline is similar in men and women.
A study in Parkinson’s disease patients, in which the effect of levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) on rasagiline pharmacokinetics at steady state was investigated, showed that the pharmacokinetics of rasagiline were not affected by concomitant administration of LD/CD.
Effect of Other Drugs on the Metabolism of AZILECT
In vitro metabolism studies showed that CYP1A2 was the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of rasagiline. There is the potential for inhibitors of this enzyme to alter AZILECT clearance when coadministered [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Ciprofloxacin: When ciprofloxacin, an inhibitor of CYP1A2, was administered to healthy volunteers (n=12) at 500 mg (BID) with rasagiline at 2 mg/day, the AUC of rasagiline increased by 83% and there was no change in the elimination half life [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Theophylline: Coadministration of rasagiline 1 mg/day and theophylline, a substrate of CYP1A2, up to 500 mg twice daily to healthy subjects (n=24) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either drug.
Antidepressants: Severe CNS toxicity (occasionally fatal) associated with hyperpyrexia as part of a serotonin syndrome, has been reported with combined treatment of an antidepressant (e.g., from one of many classes including tricyclic or tetracyclic antidepressants, SSRIs, SNRIs, triazolopyridine antidepressants) and nonselective MAOI or a selective MAO-B inhibitor [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Effect of AZILECT on Other Drugs
No additional in vivo trials have investigated the effect of AZILECT on other drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. In vitro studies showed that rasagiline at a concentration of 1 mcg/mL (equivalent to a level that is 160 times the average Cmax ~ 5.9-8.5 ng/mL in Parkinson’s disease patients after 1 mg rasagiline multiple dosing) did not inhibit cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP4A. These results indicate that rasagiline is unlikely to cause any clinically significant interference with substrates of these enzymes.
Two-year carcinogenicity studies were conducted in mice at oral doses of 0, 1, 15, and 45 mg/kg/day and in rats at oral doses of 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg/day (males) or 0, 0.5, 2, 5, and 17 mg/kg/day (females). In rats, there was no increase in tumors at any dose tested. Plasma exposures (AUC) at the highest dose tested were approximately 33 and 260 times, in male and female rats, respectively, that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 1 mg/day.
In mice, there was an increase in lung tumors (combined adenomas/carcinomas) at 15 and 45 mg/kg in males and females. At the lowest dose tested, plasma AUCs were approximately 5 times those expected in humans at the MRHD.
The carcinogenic potential of rasagiline administered in combination with levodopa/carbidopa has not been examined.
Rasagiline was reproducibly clastogenic in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays in human lymphocytes in the presence of metabolic activation and was mutagenic and clastogenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma tk assay in the absence and presence of metabolic activation. Rasagiline was negative in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay and in the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice. Rasagiline was also negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice when administered in combination with levodopa/carbidopa.
Impairment of Fertility
Rasagiline had no effect on mating performance or fertility in rats treated prior to and throughout the mating period and continuing in females through gestation day 17 at oral doses of up to 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the plasma AUC in humans at the MRHD). The effect of rasagiline administered in combination with levodopa/carbidopa on mating and fertility has not been examined.
The effectiveness of AZILECT for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease was established in four 18- to 26-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, as initial monotherapy or adjunct therapy.
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