BUSPIRONE HYDROCHLORIDE- buspirone hydrochloride tablet
Buspirone hydrochloride is a white crystalline, water soluble compound with a molecular weight of 421.96. Chemically, buspirone hydrochloride is N -[4-[4-(2-Pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl]butyl]-1,1-cyclopentanediacetamide monohydrochloride. The empirical formula C 21 H 31 N 5 O 2 •HCl is represented by the following structural formula:
Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg or 30 mg of buspirone hydrochloride, USP (equivalent to 4.6 mg, 9.1 mg, 13.7 mg and 27.4 mg of buspirone free base, respectively). The 5 mg and 10 mg tablets are scored so they can be bisected. Thus, the 5 mg tablet can also provide a 2.5 mg dose, and the 10 mg tablet can provide a 5 mg dose. The 15 mg and 30 mg tablets are scored so they can be either bisected or trisected. Thus, a single 15 mg tablet can provide the following doses: 15 mg (entire tablet), 10 mg (two-thirds of a tablet), 7.5 mg (one-half of a tablet), or 5 mg (one-third of a tablet). A single 30 mg tablet can provide the following doses: 30 mg (entire tablet), 20 mg (two-thirds of a tablet), 15 mg (one-half of a tablet), or 10 mg (one-third of a tablet). Buspirone hydrochloride tablets, USP contain the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate. The 30 mg tablets also contain FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake.
The mechanism of action of buspirone is unknown. Buspirone differs from typical benzodiazepine anxiolytics in that it does not exert anticonvulsant or muscle relaxant effects. It also lacks the prominent sedative effect that is associated with more typical anxiolytics. In vitro preclinical studies have shown that buspirone has a high affinity for serotonin (5-HT 1A ) receptors. Buspirone has no significant affinity for benzodiazepine receptors and does not affect GABA binding in vitro or in vivo when tested in preclinical models.
Buspirone has moderate affinity for brain D 2 -dopamine receptors. Some studies do suggest that buspirone may have indirect effects on other neurotransmitter systems.
Buspirone hydrochloride tablets are rapidly absorbed in man and undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism. In a radio-labeled study, unchanged buspirone in the plasma accounted for only about 1% of the radioactivity in the plasma. Following oral administration, plasma concentrations of unchanged buspirone are very low and variable between subjects. Peak plasma levels of 1 ng/mL to 6 ng/mL have been observed 40 to 90 minutes after single oral doses of 20 mg. The single-dose bioavailability of unchanged buspirone when taken as a tablet is on the average about 90% of an equivalent dose of solution, but there is large variability.
The effects of food upon the bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride tablets have been studied in eight subjects. They were given a 20 mg dose with and without food; the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (C max ) of unchanged buspirone increased by 84% and 116%, respectively, but the total amount of buspirone immunoreactive material did not change. This suggests that food may decrease the extent of presystemic clearance of buspirone (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
A multiple-dose study conducted in 15 subjects suggests that buspirone has nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Thus, dose increases and repeated dosing may lead to somewhat higher blood levels of unchanged buspirone than would be predicted from results of single-dose studies.
An in vitro protein binding study indicated that approximately 86% of buspirone is bound to plasma proteins. It was also observed that aspirin increased the plasma levels of free buspirone by 23%, while flurazepam decreased the plasma levels of free buspirone by 20%. However, it is not known whether these drugs cause similar effects on plasma levels of free buspirone in vivo , or whether such changes, if they do occur, cause clinically significant differences in treatment outcome. An in vitro study indicated that buspirone did not displace highly protein-bound drugs such as phenytoin, warfarin, and propranolol from plasma protein, and that buspirone may displace digoxin.
Buspirone is metabolized primarily by oxidation, which in vitro has been shown to be mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (see PRECAUTIONS : Drug Interactions). Several hydroxylated derivatives and a pharmacologically active metabolite, 1-pyrimidinylpiperazine (1-PP), are produced. In animal models predictive of anxiolytic potential, 1-PP has about one quarter of the activity of buspirone, but is present in up to 20- fold greater amounts. However, this is probably not important in humans: blood samples from humans chronically exposed to buspirone hydrochloride tablets do not exhibit high levels of 1-PP; mean values are approximately 3 ng/mL and the highest human blood level recorded among 108 chronically dosed patients was 17 ng/mL, less than 1/200th of 1-PP levels found in animals given large doses of buspirone without signs of toxicity.
In a single-dose study using 14 C-labeled buspirone, 29% to 63% of the dose was excreted in the urine within 24 hours, primarily as metabolites; fecal excretion accounted for 18% to 38% of the dose. The average elimination half-life of unchanged buspirone after single doses of 10 to 40 mg is about 2 to 3 hours.
Age and Gender Effects
After single or multiple doses in adults, no significant differences in buspirone pharmacokinetics (AUC and C max ) were observed between elderly and younger subjects or between men and women.
After multiple-dose administration of buspirone to patients with hepatic impairment, steady-state AUC of buspirone increased 13- fold compared with healthy subjects (see PRECAUTIONS).
After multiple-dose administration of buspirone to renally impaired (Cl cr = 10 to 70 mL/min/1.73 m 2) patients, steady-state AUC of buspirone increased 4-fold compared with healthy (Cl cr ≥ 80 mL/min/1.73 m 2) subjects (see PRECAUTIONS).
The effects of race on the pharmacokinetics of buspirone have not been studied.
Buspirone hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic.
The efficacy of buspirone hydrochloride tablets has been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials of outpatients whose diagnosis roughly corresponds to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Many of the patients enrolled in these studies also had coexisting depressive symptoms and buspirone hydrochloride tablets relieved anxiety in the presence of these coexisting depressive symptoms. The patients evaluated in these studies had experienced symptoms for periods of 1 month to over 1 year prior to the study, with average symptom duration of 6 months. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (300.02) is described in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, III 1 as follows:
Generalized, persistent anxiety (of at least 1 month continual duration), manifested by symptoms from three of the four following categories:
- Motor tension: shakiness, jitteriness, jumpiness, trembling, tension, muscle aches, fatigability, inability to relax, eyelid twitch, furrowed brow, strained face, fidgeting, restlessness, easy startle.
- Autonomic hyperactivity: sweating, heart pounding or racing, cold, clammy hands, dry mouth, dizziness, lightheadedness, paresthesias (tingling in hands or feet), upset stomach, hot or cold spells, frequent urination, diarrhea, discomfort in the pit of the stomach, lump in the throat, flushing, pallor, high resting pulse and respiration rate.
- Apprehensive expectation: anxiety, worry, fear, rumination, and anticipation of misfortune to self or others.
- Vigilance and scanning: hyperattentiveness resulting in distractibility, difficulty in concentrating, insomnia, feeling “on edge,” irritability, impatience.
The effectiveness of buspirone hydrochloride tablets in long-term use, that is, for more than 3 to 4 weeks, has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. There is no body of evidence available that systematically addresses the appropriate duration of treatment for GAD. However, in a study of long-term use, 264 patients were treated with buspirone hydrochloride tablets for 1 year without ill effect. Therefore, the physician who elects to use buspirone hydrochloride tablets for extended periods should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
The use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) intended to treat depression with buspirone or within 14 days of stopping treatment with buspirone is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome and/or elevated blood pressure. The use of buspirone within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat depression is also contraindicated.
Starting buspirone in a patient who is being treated with reversible MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. (see WARNINGS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS).
The administration of buspirone hydrochloride tablets to a patient taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) may pose a hazard. There have been reports of the occurrence of elevated blood pressure when buspirone hydrochloride has been added to a regimen including an MAOI. Therefore, it is recommended that buspirone hydrochloride tablets not be used concomitantly with an MAOI.
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs SSRIs, and other serotonergic drugs, including buspirone, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans), with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, including reversible MAOIs such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue), or with antipsychotics or other dopamine antagonists.
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular changes (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for emergence of serotonin syndrome.
The concomitant use of buspirone with MAOIs intended to treat depression is contraindicated. Buspirone should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with reversible MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. There have been no reports involving the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with a reversible MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking buspirone. Buspirone should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the reversible MAOI [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
If concomitant use of buspirone with a 5-hydroxytryptmine receptor agonist (triptan) is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.
The concomitant use of buspirone with serotonin precursors (such as tryptophan) is not recommended.
Treatment with buspirone and any concomitant serotonergic or antidopaminergic agents, including antipsychotics, should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Because buspirone hydrochloride tablets have no established antipsychotic activity, it should not be employed in lieu of appropriate antipsychotic treatment.
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