Prescription Drug Information: Buspirone Hydrochloride (Page 3 of 5)

Grapefruit Juice

In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with grapefruit juice (200 mL double-strength t.i.d. for 2 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (4.3-fold increase in C max ; 9.2-fold increase in AUC). Patients receiving buspirone should be advised to avoid drinking such large amounts of grapefruit juice.

Itraconazole

In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with itraconazole (200 mg/day for 4 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (13-fold increase in C max and 19-fold increase in AUC). These pharmacokinetic interactions were accompanied by an increased incidence of side effects attributable to buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (e.g., 2.5 mg q.d.) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment.

Nefazodone

In a study of steady-state pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (2.5 mg or 5 mg b.i.d.) with nefazodone (250 mg b.i.d.) resulted in marked increases in plasma buspirone concentrations (increases up to 20-fold in C max and up to 50-fold in AUC) and statistically significant decreases (about 50%) in plasma concentrations of the buspirone metabolite 1-PP. With 5 mg b.i.d. doses of buspirone, slight increases in AUC were observed for nefazodone (23%) and its metabolites hydroxynefazodone (HO-NEF) (17%) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (9%). Slight increases in C max were observed for nefazodone (8%) and its metabolite HO-NEF (11%). Subjects receiving buspirone 5 mg b.i.d. and nefazodone 250 mg b.i.d. experienced lightheadedness, asthenia, dizziness, and somnolence, adverse events also observed with either drug alone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (e.g., 2.5 mg q.d.) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment.

Rifampin

In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (30 mg as a single dose) with rifampin (600 mg/day for 5 days) decreased the plasma concentrations (83.7% decrease in C max ; 89.6% decrease in AUC) and pharmacodynamic effects of buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, the dosage of buspirone may need adjusting to maintain anxiolytic effect.

Other Inhibitors and Inducers of CYP3A4

Substances that inhibit CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole or ritonavir, may inhibit buspirone metabolism and increase plasma concentrations of buspirone while substances that induce CYP3A4, such as dexamethasone or certain anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine), may increase the rate of buspirone metabolism. If a patient has been titrated to a stable dosage on buspirone, a dose adjustment of buspirone may be necessary to avoid adverse events attributable to buspirone or diminished anxiolytic activity. Consequently, when administered with a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, a low dose of buspirone used cautiously is recommended. When used in combination with a potent inducer of CYP3A4 the dosage of buspirone may need adjusting to maintain anxiolytic effect.

Other Drugs

Cimetidine

Coadministration of buspirone with cimetidine was found to increase C max (40%) and T max (2-fold), but had minimal effects on the AUC of buspirone.

Protein Binding

In vitro , buspirone does not displace tightly bound drugs like phenytoin, propranolol, and warfarin from serum proteins. However, there has been one report of prolonged prothrombin time when buspirone was added to the regimen of a patient treated with warfarin. The patient was also chronically receiving phenytoin, phenobarbital, digoxin, and Synthroid ®. In vitro , buspirone may displace less firmly bound drugs like digoxin. The clinical significance of this property is unknown.

Therapeutic levels of aspirin, desipramine, diazepam, flurazepam, ibuprofen, propranolol, thioridazine, and tolbutamide had only a limited effect on the extent of binding of buspirone to plasma proteins (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Buspirone hydrochloride may interfere with the urinary metanephrine/catecholamine assay. It has been mistakenly read as metanephrine during routine assay testing for pheochromocytoma, resulting in a false positive laboratory result. Buspirone hydrochloride should therefore be discontinued for at least 48 hours prior to undergoing a urine collection for catecholamines.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No evidence of carcinogenic potential was observed in rats during a 24-month study at approximately 133 times the maximum recommended human oral dose; or in mice, during an 18-month study at approximately 167 times the maximum recommended human oral dose.

With or without metabolic activation, buspirone did not induce point mutations in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Ames Test) or mouse lymphoma L5178YTK + cell cultures, nor was DNA damage observed with buspirone in Wi-38 human cells. Chromosomal aberrations or abnormalities did not occur in bone marrow cells of mice given one or five daily doses of buspirone.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category B

No fertility impairment or fetal damage was observed in reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits at buspirone doses of approximately 30 times the maximum recommended human dose. In humans, however, adequate and well-controlled studies during pregnancy have not been performed. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

The effect of buspirone hydrochloride tablets on labor and delivery in women is unknown. No adverse effects were noted in reproduction studies in rats.

Nursing Mothers

The extent of the excretion in human milk of buspirone or its metabolites is not known. In rats, however, buspirone and its metabolites are excreted in milk. Buspirone hydrochloride tablets administration to nursing women should be avoided if clinically possible.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of buspirone were evaluated in two placebo-controlled 6-week trials involving a total of 559 pediatric patients (ranging from 6 to 17 years of age) with GAD. Doses studied were 7.5 mg to 30 mg b.i.d. (15 mg/day to 60 mg/day). There were no significant differences between buspirone and placebo with regard to the symptoms of GAD following doses recommended for the treatment of GAD in adults. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that, for identical doses, plasma exposure to buspirone and its active metabolite, 1-PP, are equal to or higher in pediatric patients than adults. No unexpected safety findings were associated with buspirone in these trials. There are no long-term safety or efficacy data in this population.

Geriatric Use

In one study of 6632 patients who received buspirone for the treatment of anxiety, 605 patients were ≥ 65 years old and 41 were ≥ 75 years old; the safety and efficacy profiles for these 605 elderly patients (mean age = 70.8 years) were similar to those in the younger population (mean age = 43.3 years). Review of spontaneously reported adverse clinical events has not identified differences between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older patients cannot be ruled out.

There were no effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of buspirone (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations).

Use in Patients with Impaired Hepatic or Renal Function

Buspirone is metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. A pharmacokinetic study in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function demonstrated increased plasma levels and a lengthened half-life of buspirone. Therefore, the administration of buspirone hydrochloride tablets to patients with severe hepatic or renal impairment cannot be recommended (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

(See also PRECAUTIONS)

Commonly Observed

The more commonly observed untoward events associated with the use of buspirone hydrochloride tablets not seen at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients include dizziness, nausea, headache, nervousness, lightheadedness, and excitement.

Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

One guide to the relative clinical importance of adverse events associated with buspirone hydrochloride tablets are provided by the frequency with which they caused drug discontinuation during clinical testing. Approximately 10% of the 2200 anxious patients who participated in the buspirone hydrochloride tablets premarketing clinical efficacy trials in anxiety disorders lasting 3 to 4 weeks discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. The more common events causing discontinuation included: central nervous system disturbances (3.4%), primarily dizziness, insomnia, nervousness, drowsiness, and lightheaded feeling; gastrointestinal disturbances (1.2%), primarily nausea; and miscellaneous disturbances (1.1%), primarily headache and fatigue. In addition, 3.4% of patients had multiple complaints, none of which could be characterized as primary.

Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials

The table that follows enumerates adverse events that occurred at a frequency of 1% or more among buspirone hydrochloride tablets patients who participated in 4-week, controlled trials comparing buspirone hydrochloride tablets with placebo. The frequencies were obtained from pooled data for 17 trials. The prescriber should be aware that these figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those which prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. Comparison of the cited figures, however, does provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the side effect incidence rate in the population studied.

TREATMENT-EMERGENT ADVERSE EXPERIENCE INCIDENCE IN PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS * (Percent of Patients Reporting)
Adverse Experience Buspirone Hydrochloride Tablets (n = 477) Placebo (n = 464)
— Incidence less than 1%.
*
Events reported by at least 1% of buspirone hydrochloride tablets patients are included.

Cardiovascular

Tachycardia/Palpitations

1

1

CNS

Dizziness

12

3

Drowsiness

10

9

Nervousness

5

1

Insomnia

3

3

Lightheadedness

3

Decreased Concentration

2

2

Excitement

2

Anger/Hostility

2

Confusion

2

Depression

2

2

EENT

Blurred Vision

2

Gastrointestinal

Nausea

8

5

Dry Mouth

3

4

Abdominal/Gastric Distress

2

2

Diarrhea

2

Constipation

1

2

Vomiting

1

2

Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal Aches/Pains

1

Neurological

Numbness

2

Paresthesia

1

Incoordination

1

Tremor

1

Skin

Skin Rash

1

Miscellaneous

Headache

6

3

Fatigue

4

4

Weakness

2

Sweating/Clamminess

1

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