Prescription Drug Information: Carisoprodol

CARISOPRODOL- carisoprodol tablet
Oxford Pharmaceuticals, LLC

Structural FormulaLabel

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Carisoprodol is indicated for the relief of discomfort associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions in adults.

Limitation of Use
Carisoprodol should only be used for short periods (up to two or three weeks) because adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use has not been established and because acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions are generally of short duration. [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended dose of carisoprodol is 350 mg three times a day and at bedtime.
The recommended maximum duration of carisoprodol use is up to two or three weeks.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

350 mg Tablets: round, convex, white tablets, inscribed with 111 on one side and “O” on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Carisoprodol is contraindicated in patients with a history of acute intermittent porphyria or a hypersensitivity reaction to a carbamate such as meprobamate.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Sedation

Carisoprodol has sedative properties (in the low back pain trials, 13% to 17% of patients who received carisoprodol experienced sedation compared to 6% of patients who received placebo) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1)] and may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a motor vehicle or operating machinery. There have been post-marketing reports of motor vehicle accidents associated with the use of carisoprodol.

Since the sedative effects of carisoprodol and other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants) may be additive, appropriate caution should be exercised with patients who take more than one of these CNS depressants simultaneously.

5.2 Abuse, Dependence, and Withdrawal

Carisoprodol, the active ingredient, has been subject to abuse, dependence, and withdrawal, misuse and criminal diversion. [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.1, 9.2, 9.3)]. Abuse of carisoprodol poses a risk of overdosage which may lead to death, CNS and respiratory depression, hypotension, seizures and other disorders [see Overdosage (10) ].

Post-marketing experience cases of carisoprodol abuse and dependence have been reported in patients with prolonged use and a history of drug abuse. Although most of these patients took other drugs of abuse, some patients solely abused carisoprodol. Withdrawal symptoms have been reported following abrupt cessation of carisoprodol after prolonged use. Reported withdrawal symptoms included insomnia, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headache, tremors, muscle twitching, ataxia, hallucinations, and psychosis. One of carisoprodol’s metabolites, meprobamate (a controlled substance), may also cause dependence [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

To reduce the risk of carisoprodol abuse assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing. After prescribing, limit the length of treatment to three weeks for the relief of acute musculoskeletal discomfort, keep careful prescription records, monitor for signs of abuse and overdose, and educate patients and their families about abuse and on proper storage and disposal.

5.3 Seizures

There have been post-marketing reports of seizures in patients who received carisoprodol. Most of these cases have occurred in the setting of multiple drug overdoses (including drugs of abuse, illegal drugs, and alcohol) [see Overdosage (10)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice.

The data described below are based on 1387 patients pooled from two double blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo controlled, one-week trials in adult patients with acute, mechanical, lower back pain [see Clinical Studies (14) ]. In these studies, patients were treated with 250 mg of carisoprodol, 350 mg of carisoprodol, or placebo three times a day and at bedtime for seven days. The mean age was about 41 years old with 54% females and 46% males and 74 % Caucasian, 16 % Black, 9% Asian, and 2% other.

There were no deaths and there were no serious adverse reactions in these two trials. In these two studies, 2.7%, 2%, and 5.4%, of patients treated with placebo, 250 mg of carisoprodol, and 350 mg of carisoprodol, respectively, discontinued due to adverse events; and 0.5%, 0.5%, and 1.8% of patients treated with placebo, 250 mg of carisoprodol, and 350 mg of carisoprodol, respectively, discontinued due to central nervous system adverse reactions.

Table 1 displays adverse reactions reported with frequencies greater than 2% and more frequently than placebo in patients treated with carisoprodol in the two trials described above.

Table 1. Patients with Adverse Reactions in Controlled Studies
Adverse Reaction Placebo(n=560)n (%)

Carisoprodol 250 mg (n=548) n (%)

Carisoprodol 350 mg(n=279)n (%)
Drowsiness 31 (6)

73 (13)

47 (17)
Dizziness 11 (2) 43 (8) 19 (7)
Headache 11 (2) 26 (5) 9 (3)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following events have been reported during postapproval use of carisoprodol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular: Tachycardia, postural hypotension, and facial flushing [see Overdosage (10)].
Central Nervous System: Drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo, ataxia, tremor, agitation, irritability, headache, depressive reactions, syncope, insomnia, and seizures [see Overdosage (10)].
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, and epigastric discomfort.
Hematologic: Leukopenia, pancytopenia

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 CNS Depressants

The sedative effects of carisoprodol and other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants) may be additive. Therefore, caution should be exercised with patients who take more than one of these CNS depressants simultaneously. Concomitant use of carisoprodol and meprobamate, a metabolite of carisoprodol, is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.2 CYP2C19 Inhibitors and Inducers

Carisoprodol is metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 to form meprobamate [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Co-administration of CYP2C19 inhibitors, such as omeprazole or fluvoxamine, with carisoprodol could result in increased exposure of carisoprodol and decreased exposure of meprobamate. Co-administration of CYP2C19 inducers, such as rifampin or St. John’s Wort, with carisoprodol could result in decreased exposure of carisoprodol and increased exposure of meprobamate. Low dose aspirin also showed an induction effect on CYP2C19. The full pharmacological impact of these potential alterations of exposures in terms of either efficacy or safety of carisoprodol is unknown.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary
Data over many decades of carisoprodol use in pregnancy have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Data on meprobamate, the primary metabolite of carisoprodol, also do not show a consistent association between maternal use of meprobamate and an increased risk of major birth defects (see Data).

In a published animal reproduction study, pregnant mice administered carisoprodol orally at 2.6­ and 4.1-times the maximum recommended human dose ([MRHD] of 1400 mg per day [350 mg QID] based on body surface area [BSA] comparison) from gestation through weaning resulted in reduced fetal weights, postnatal weight gain, and postnatal survival (see Data). .

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data
Human Data
Retrospective case-control and cohort studies of meprobamate use during the first trimester of pregnancy have not consistently identified an increased risk or pattern of major birth defects. For children exposed to meprobamate in-utero, one study found no adverse effect on mental or motor development or IQ scores.

Animal Data
Embryofetal development studies in animals have not been completed.

In a published pre- and post-natal development animal study, pregnant mice administered carisoprodol orally at 300, 750, or 1200 mg/kg/day (approximately 1-, 2.6-, and 4.1-times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) from 7-days prior to gestation through birth and from lactation through weaning resulted in reduced fetal weights, postnatal weight gain, and postnatal survival at 2.6- and 4.1-times the MRHD.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary
Data from published literature report that carisoprodol and its metabolite, meprobamate, are present in breastmilk. There are no data on the effect of carisoprodol on milk production. There is one report of sedation in an infant who was breastfed by a mother taking carisoprodol (see Clinical Considerations). Because there have been no consistent reports of adverse events in breastfed infants over decades of use, the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for carisoprodol and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from carisoprodol or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations
Infants exposed to carisoprodol through breast milk should be monitored for sedation.

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