Prescription Drug Information: Ciprofloxacin (Page 3 of 11)
2.3 Dosage Modifications in Patients with Renal Impairment
Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion; however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and through the intestine. These alternative pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. Nonetheless, some modification of dosage is recommended, particularly for patients with severe renal dysfunction. Dosage guidelines for use in patients with renal impairment are shown in Table 4.
|Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)||Dose|
|> 50||See Usual Dosage.|
|30–50||250–500 mg every12 hours|
|5–29||250–500 mg every 18 hours|
|Patients on hemodialysis or Peritoneal dialysis||250–500 mg every 24 hours (after dialysis)|
When only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formulas may be used to estimate creatinine clearance:
Men — Creatinine clearance (mL/min) = Weight (kg) x (140–age) 72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)
Women — 0.85 x the value calculated for men.
The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.
In patients with severe infections and severe renal impairment, a unit dose of 750 mg may be administered at the intervals noted above. Patients should be carefully monitored.
Pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency were excluded from the clinical trial of cUTI and pyelonephritis. No information is available on dosing adjustments necessary for pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency (that is, creatinine clearance of < 50 mL/min/1.73m 2).
2.4 Important Administration Instructions
With Multivalent Cations
Administer Ciprofloxacin at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after magnesium/aluminum antacids; polymeric phosphate binders (for example, sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate) or sucralfate; Videx ® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder for oral solution; other highly buffered drugs; or other products containing calcium, iron or zinc.
With Dairy Products
Concomitant administration of Ciprofloxacin with dairy products (like milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone should be avoided since decreased absorption is possible; however, Ciprofloxacin may be taken with a meal that contains these products.
Hydration of Patients Receiving Ciprofloxacin
Assure adequate hydration of patients receiving Ciprofloxacin to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine. Crystalluria has been reported with quinolones.
Instruct the patient of the appropriate Ciprofloxacin administration [see Patient Counseling Information ( 17)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP (white to off-white round tablets) containing 250 mg of ciprofloxacin and engraved with “CTI 222”
Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP (white to off-white capsule-shaped tablets) containing 500 mg of ciprofloxacin and engraved with “CTI 223”
Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP (white to off-white capsule-shaped tablets) containing 750 mg of ciprofloxacin and engraved with “CTI 224”
Ciprofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antibacterials, or any of the product components [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7)].
Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated [see Drug Interactions ( 7)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Central Nervous System Effects
Fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions from different body systems that can occur together in the same patient. Commonly seen adverse reactions include tendinitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects (hallucinations, anxiety, depression, insomnia, severe headaches, and confusion). These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after starting Ciprofloxacin. Patients of any age or without pre-existing risk factors have experienced these adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2, 5.3, 5.4)].
Discontinue Ciprofloxacin immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction. In addition, avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, in patients who have experienced any of these serious adverse reactions associated with fluoroquinolones.
5.2 Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture
Fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) and Adverse Reactions ( 6.2)]. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and has also been reported with the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendons. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can occur, within hours or days of starting Ciprofloxacin, or as long as several months after completion of fluoroquinolone therapy. Tendinitis and tendon rupture can occur bilaterally.
The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in patients over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Other factors that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Discontinue Ciprofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, in patients who have a history of tendon disorders or have experienced tendinitis or tendon rupture [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2)].
5.3 Peripheral Neuropathy
Fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of Ciprofloxacin and may be irreversible in some patients [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) and Adverse Reactions ( 6.1, 6.2)].
Discontinue Ciprofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or other alterations in sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in order to minimize the development of an irreversible condition. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, in patients who have previously experienced peripheral neuropathy [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1, 6.2)].
5.4 Central Nervous System Effects
Fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) effects, including. convulsions, increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri), and toxic psychosis. Ciprofloxacin may also cause central nervous system (CNS) events including: nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, confusion, tremors, hallucinations, depression, and psychotic reactions have progressed to suicidal ideations/thoughts and self-injurious behavior such as attempted or completed suicide. These reactions may occur following the first dose. Advise patients receiving Ciprofloxacin to inform their healthcare provider immediately if these reactions occur, discontinue the drug, and institute appropriate care. Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. As with all fluoroquinolones, use Ciprofloxacin with caution in epileptic patients and patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, previous history of convulsion, reduced cerebral blood flow, altered brain structure, or stroke), or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). Use Ciprofloxacin when the benefits of treatment exceed the risks, since these patients are endangered because of possible undesirable CNS side effects. Cases of status epilepticus have been reported. If seizures occur, discontinue Ciprofloxacin [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1) and Drug Interactions ( 7)].
5.5 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis
Fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse reactions, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid Ciprofloxacin in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2)].
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