Changes in laboratory parameters while on ciprofloxacin are listed below:
Hepatic-Elevations of ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase, LDH, serum bilirubin.
Hematologic-Eosinophilia, leukopenia, decreased blood platelets, elevated blood platelets, pancytopenia.
Renal-Elevations of serum creatinine, BUN, crystalluria, cylindruria, and hematuria have been reported.
Other changes occurring were: elevation of serum gammaglutamyl transferase, elevation of serum amylase, reduction in blood glucose, elevated uric acid, decrease in hemoglobin, anemia, bleeding diathesis, increase in blood monocytes, and leukocytosis.
Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) mediated metabolism. Co-administration of ciprofloxacin with other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 results in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and could lead to clinically significant adverse events of the co-administered drug.
Table 11: Drugs That are Affected by and Affecting Ciprofloxacin
|Drugs That are Affected by Ciprofloxacin|
|Tizanidine||Contraindicated||Concomitant administration of tizanidine and ciprofloxacin is contraindicated due to the potentiation of hypotensive and sedative effects of tizanidine [see Contraindications (4.2)].|
|Theophylline||Avoid Use (Plasma Exposure Likely to be Increased and Prolonged)||Concurrent administration of ciprofloxacin with theophylline may result in increased risk of a patient developing central nervous system (CNS) or other adverse reactions. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor serum levels of theophylline and adjust dosage as appropriate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].|
|Drugs Known to Prolong QT Interval||Avoid Use||Ciprofloxacin may further prolong the QT interval in patients receiving drugs known to prolong the QT interval (for example, class IA or III antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, antipsychotics) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].|
|Oral antidiabetic drugs||Use with caution Glucose-lowering effect potentiated||Hypoglycemia sometimes severe has been reported when ciprofloxacin and oral antidiabetic agents, mainly sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide, glimepiride), were co-administered, presumably by intensifying the action of the oral antidiabetic agent. Fatalities have been reported. Monitor blood glucose when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with oral antidiabetic drugs [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].|
|Phenytoin||Use with caution Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased)||To avoid the loss of seizure control associated with decreased phenytoin levels and to prevent phenytoin overdose-related adverse reactions upon ciprofloxacin discontinuation in patients receiving both agents, monitor phenytoin therapy, including phenytoin serum concentration during and shortly after co-administration of ciprofloxacin with phenytoin.|
|Cyclosporine||Use with caution (transient elevations in serum creatinine)||Monitor renal function (in particular serum creatinine) when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with cyclosporine.|
|Anti-coagulant drugs||Use with caution (Increase in anticoagulant effect)||The risk may vary with the underlying infection, age and general status of the patient so that the contribution of ciprofloxacin to the increase in INR (international normalized ratio) is difficult to assess. Monitor prothrombin time and INR frequently during and shortly after co-administration of ciprofloxacin with an oral anti-coagulant (for example, warfarin).|
|Methotrexate||Use with caution Inhibition of methotrexate renal tubular transport potentially leading to increased methotrexate plasma levels||Potential increase in the risk of methotrexate associated toxic reactions. Therefore, carefully monitor patients under methotrexate therapy when concomitant ciprofloxacin therapy is indicated.|
|Ropinirole||Use with caution||Monitoring for ropinirole-related adverse reactions and appropriate dose adjustment of ropinirole is recommended during and shortly after co-administration with ciprofloxacin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16)].|
|Clozapine||Use with caution||Careful monitoring of clozapine associated adverse reactions and appropriate adjustment of clozapine dosage during and shortly after co-administration with ciprofloxacin are advised.|
|NSAIDs||Use with caution||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (but not acetyl salicylic acid) in combination of very high doses of quinolones have been shown to provoke convulsions in pre-clinical studies and in postmarketing.|
|Sildenafil||Use with caution Two-fold increase in exposure||Monitor for sildenafil toxicity [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].|
|Duloxetine||Avoid UseFive-fold increase in duloxetine exposure||If unavoidable, monitor for duloxetine toxicity|
|Caffeine/Xanthine Derivatives||Use with caution Reduced clearance resulting in elevated levels and prolongationof serum half-life||Ciprofloxacin inhibits the formation of paraxanthine after caffeine administration (or pentoxifylline containing products). Monitor for xanthine toxicity and adjust dose as necessary.|
|Zolpidem||Avoid Use||Co-administration with ciprofloxacin may increase blood levels of zolpidem, concurrent use is not recommended|
|Drug(s) Affecting Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin|
|Antacids, Sucralfate, Multivitamins and Other Products Containing Multivalent Cations (magnesium/aluminum antacids; polymeric phosphate binders (for example, sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate); sucralfate; Videx® (didanosine) chewable/ buffered tablets or pediatric powder; other highly buffered drugs; or products containing calcium, iron, or zinc and dairy products)||Ciprofloxacin should be taken at least two hours before or six hours after Multivalent cation-containing products administration [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].||Decrease ciprofloxacin absorption, resulting in lower serum and urine levels|
|Probenecid||Use with caution (interferes with renal tubular secretion of ciprofloxacin and increases ciprofloxacin serum levels)||Potentiation of ciprofloxacin toxicity may occur.|
Prolonged experience with ciprofloxacin in pregnant women over several decades, based on available published information from case reports, case control studies and observational studies on ciprofloxacin administered during pregnancy, have not identified any drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). Oral administration of ciprofloxacin during organogenesis at doses up to 100 mg/kg to pregnant mice and rats, and up to 30 mg/kg to pregnant rabbits did not cause fetal malformations (see Data). These doses were up to 0.3, 0.6, and 0.4 times the maximum recommended clinical oral dose in mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively, based on body surface area. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
While available studies cannot definitively establish the absence of risk, published data from prospective observational studies over several decades have not established an association with ciprofloxacin use during pregnancy and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Available studies have methodological limitations including small sample size and some of them are not specific for ciprofloxacin. A controlled prospective observational study followed 200 women exposed to fluoroquinolones (52.5% exposed to ciprofloxacin and 68% first trimester exposures) during gestation. In utero exposure to fluoroquinolones during embryogenesis was not associated with increased risk of major malformations. The reported rates of major congenital malformations were 2.2% for the fluoroquinolone group and 2.6% for the control group (background incidence of major malformations is 1 to 5%). Rates of spontaneous abortions, prematurity and low birth weight did not differ between the groups and there were no clinically significant musculoskeletal dysfunctions up to one year of age in the ciprofloxacin exposed children.
Another prospective follow-up study reported on 549 pregnancies with fluoroquinolone exposure (93% first trimester exposures). There were 70 ciprofloxacin exposures, all within the first trimester. The malformation rates among live-born babies exposed to ciprofloxacin and to fluoroquinolones overall were both within background incidence ranges. No specific patterns of congenital abnormalities were found. The study did not reveal any clear adverse reactions due to in utero exposure to ciprofloxacin.
No differences in the rates of prematurity, spontaneous abortions, or birth weight were seen in women exposed to ciprofloxacin during pregnancy. However, these small postmarketing epidemiology studies, of which most experience is from short term, first trimester exposure, are insufficient to evaluate the risk for less common defects or to permit reliable and definitive conclusions regarding the safety of ciprofloxacin in pregnant women and their developing fetuses.
Developmental toxicology studies have been performed with ciprofloxacin in rats, mice, and rabbits. In rats and mice, oral doses up to 100 mg/kg administered during organogenesis (Gestation Days, GD, 6 to 17) were not associated with adverse developmental outcomes, including embryofetal toxicity or malformations. In rats and mice, a 100 mg/kg dose is approximately 0.6 and 0.3 times the maximum daily human oral dose (1500 mg/day) based upon body surface area, respectively. In a series of rabbit developmental toxicology studies, does received oral or intravenous ciprofloxacin for one of the following 5 day periods: GD 6 to 10, GD 10 to 14, or GD 14 to 18, intended to cover the period of organogenesis. This was an attempt to mitigate the gastrointestinal intolerance observed in rabbits that receive antibacterials manifested by reduced maternal food consumption and weight loss, that can lead to embryofetal resorption or spontaneous abortion. An oral ciprofloxacin dose of 100 mg/kg (approximately 1.3 times the highest recommended clinical oral dose based on body surface area) caused excessive maternal toxicity confounding evaluation of the fetuses. A 30 mg/kg oral dose (approximately 0.4 times the highest recommended clinical oral dose) was associated with suppression of maternal and fetal body weight gain, but fetal malformations were not observed. Intravenous administration of doses up to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.3 times the highest recommended clinical oral dose based upon body surface area) to pregnant rabbits was not maternally toxic and neither embryofetal toxicity nor fetal malformations were observed.
In peri- and post-natal studies, rats received ciprofloxacin doses up to 200 mg/kg/day (oral) or up to 30 mg/kg/day (subcutaneous) from GD 16 to 22 days postpartum. The 200 mg/kg dose is approximately 1.3-times the maximum recommended clinical oral dose based on body surface area. Neither maternal toxicity nor adverse effects on growth and development of the pups were observed, including no sign of arthropathy on the rear leg joints of the pups. Ciprofloxacin and other quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals of most species tested when administered directly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13) and Nonclinical Toxicology 13.2].
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