Prescription Drug Information: Ciprofloxacin

CIPROFLOXACIN — ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablet
Bryant Ranch Prepack

WARNING: SERIOUS ADVERSE REACTIONS INCLUDING TENDINITIS, TENDON RUPTURE, PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS AND EXACERBATION OF MYASTHENIA GRAVIS

  • Discontinue ciprofloxacin immediately and avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin tablets, in patients who experience any of these serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid ciprofloxacin in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of skin and skin structure infections caused by Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter cloacae , Proteus mirabilis , Proteus vulgaris , Providencia stuartii , Morganella morganii , Citrobacter freundii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus , methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis , or Streptococcus pyogenes.

1.2 Bone and Joint Infections

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

1.3 Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Bacteroides fragilis.

1.4 Infectious Diarrhea

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of infectious diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic isolates), Campylobacter jejuni , Shigella boydii† , Shigella dysenteriae , Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei† when antibacterial therapy is indicated.
†Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients.

1.5 Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever)

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of typhoid fever (enteric fever) caused by Salmonella typhi. The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been demonstrated.

1.6 Uncomplicated Cervical and Urethral Gonorrhea

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae [see Warnings and Precautions (5.17)].

1.7 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adults and pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.

Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication1. Supportive clinical information for ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis was obtained during the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001 [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

1.8 Plague

Ciprofloxacin is indicated for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age. Efficacy studies of ciprofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with plague for feasibility reasons. Therefore this indication is based on an efficacy study conducted in animals only [ see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

1.9 Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis.

1.10 Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter cloacae , Proteus mirabilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Haemophilus influenzae , Haemophilus parainfluenzae , or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Ciprofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) caused by Moraxella catarrhalis.
Because fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1–5.16)] and for some patients AECB is self-limiting, reserve ciprofloxacin for treatment of AECB in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

1.11 Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Tract Infections in Adults
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter cloacae , Serratia marcescens , Proteus mirabilis , Providencia rettgeri , Morganella morganii , Citrobacter koseri , Citrobacter freundii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus saprophyticus , or Enterococcus faecalis.
Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult female patients for treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Because fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1-5.16)] and for some patients acute uncomplicated cystitis is self-limiting, reserve ciprofloxacin tablets for treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who have no alternative treatment options.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis in Pediatric Patients
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients aged one to 17 years of age for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse reactions compared to controls, including reactions related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is associated with arthropathy and histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].

1.12 Acute Sinusitis

Ciprofloxacin is indicated in adult patients for treatment of acute sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , or Moraxella catarrhalis.
Because fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1-5.16)] and for some patients acute sinusitis is self-limiting, reserve ciprofloxacin for treatment of acute sinusitis in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

1.13 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin and other antibacterial drugs, ciprofloxacin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with ciprofloxacin may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued.
As with other drugs, some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Ciprofloxacin tablets should be administered orally as described in the appropriate Dosage Guidelines tables.

2.1 Dosage in Adults

The determination of dosage and duration for any particular patient must take into consideration the severity and nature of the infection, the susceptibility of the causative microorganism, the integrity of the patient’s host-defense mechanisms, and the status of renal and hepatic function. Ciprofloxacin tablets may be administered to adult patients when clinically indicated at the discretion of the physician.

Table 1: Adult Dosage Guidelines
Infection Dose Frequency Usual Durations 1
Skin and Skin Structure 500-750 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days
Bone and Joint 500-750 mg every 12 hours 4 to 8 weeks
Complicated Intra-Abdominal 2 500 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days
Infectious Diarrhea 500 mg every 12 hours 5 to 7 days
Typhoid Fever 500 mg every 12 hours 10 days
Uncomplicated Urethral and Cervical Gonococcal Infections 250 mg single dose single dose
Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure)3 500 mg every 12 hours 60 days
Plague 3 500-750 mg every 12 hours 14 days
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis 500 mg every 12 hours 28 days
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections 500-750 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days
Urinary Tract Infections 250-500 mg every 12 hours 7 to 14 days
Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis 250 mg every 12 hours 3 days
Acute Sinusitis 500 mg every 12 hours 10 days

1. Generally ciprofloxacin should be continued for at least 2 days after the signs and symptoms of infection have disappeared, except for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).
2. Used in conjunction with metronidazole.3. Begin drug administration as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure.

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