Prescription Drug Information: Clindamycin in 5 Percent Dextrose (Page 3 of 4)

Pediatric Use

When clindamycin sterile solution is administered to the pediatric population (birth to 16 years) appropriate monitoring of organ system functions is desirable (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Usage in Newborns and Infants

The potential for the toxic effect in the pediatric population from chemicals that may leach from the single dose premixed IV preparation in plastic has not been evaluated (see WARNINGS).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of clindamycin did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridioides difficile) seen in association with most antibiotics occur more frequently in the elderly (>60 years) and may be more severe. These patients should be carefully monitored for the development of diarrhea.

Pharmacokinetic studies with clindamycin have shown no clinically important differences between young and elderly subjects with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function after oral or intravenous administration.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following reactions have been reported with the use of clindamycin.

Infections and Infestations

Clostridioides difficile colitis

Gastrointestinal

Antibiotic-associated colitis (see WARNINGS), pseudomembranous colitis, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS). An unpleasant or metallic taste has been reported after intravenous administration of the higher doses of clindamycin phosphate.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Maculopapular rash and urticaria have been observed during drug therapy. Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like skin rashes are the most frequently reported of all adverse reactions.

Severe skin reactions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, some with fatal outcome, have been reported (see WARNINGS). Cases of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been associated with clindamycin. Anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction and hypersensitivity have also been reported (see WARNINGS).

Skin and Mucous Membranes

Pruritus, vaginitis, angioedema, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported (see Hypersensitivity Reactions).

Liver

Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal

Acute kidney injury (see WARNINGS).

Hematopoietic

Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.

Immune System

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) cases have been reported.

Local Reactions

Thrombophlebitis has been reported after intravenous infusion. Reactions can be minimized by avoiding prolonged use of indwelling intravenous catheters.

Musculoskeletal

Polyarthritis cases have been reported.

Cardiovascular

Cardiopulmonary arrest and hypotension have been reported following too rapid intravenous administration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

OVERDOSAGE

Significant mortality was observed in mice at an intravenous dose of 855 mg/kg and in rats at an oral or subcutaneous dose of approximately 2,618 mg/kg. In the mice, convulsions and depression were observed.

Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

If diarrhea occurs during therapy, this antibiotic should be discontinued (see WARNING box).

Adults

Parenteral (IV Administration)

Serious infections due to aerobic gram-positive cocci and the more susceptible anaerobes (NOT generally including Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species and Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens):

600 to 1,200 mg/day in 2, 3 or 4 equal doses.

More severe infections, particularly those due to proven or suspected Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species, or Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens:

1,200 to 2,700 mg/day in 2, 3 or 4 equal doses.

For more serious infections, these doses may have to be increased. In life-threatening situations due to either aerobes or anaerobes these doses may be increased. Doses of as much as 4,800 mg daily have been given intravenously to adults. See IV Infusion Rates section below.

Alternatively, drug may be administered in the form of a single rapid infusion of the first dose followed by continuous IV infusion as follows:

Table 2. Serum Clindamycin Levels Maintained, Rapid Infusion Rate and Maintenance Infusion Rate

To Maintain Serum Clindamycin Levels Rapid Infusion Rate Maintenance Infusion Rate

Above 4 mcg/mL

10 mg/min for 30 min

0.75 mg/min

Above 5 mcg/mL

15 mg/min for 30 min

1 mg/min

Above 6 mcg/mL

20 mg/min for 30 min

1.25 mg/min

Pediatric patients 1 month of age to 16 years

Parenteral (IV) Administration

20 to 40 mg/kg/day in 3 or 4 equal doses. The higher doses would be used for more severe infections. Clindamycin should be dosed based on total body weight regardless of obesity. As an alternative to dosing on a body weight basis, pediatric patients may be dosed on the basis of square meters body surface: 350 mg/m2 /day for serious infections and 450 mg/m2 /day for more severe infections.

Parenteral therapy may be changed to oral clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride flavored granules or clindamycin hydrochloride capsules when the condition warrants and at the discretion of the physician.

In cases of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, treatment should be continued for at least 10 days.

Pediatric Patients less than 1 month

The recommended dosage is 15 to 20 mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 equal doses. See Table 3 regarding the dosing regimen for pediatric patients with post-menstrual age (PMA) less than or equal to 32 weeks, or greater than 32 weeks to less than or equal to 40 weeks.

Table 3. Dosing Regimens for Pediatric Patients with PMA less than or equal to 32 weeks, or greater than 32 weeks to less than or equal to 40 weeks

PMA (weeks)

Dose (mg/kg)

Dosing Interval (hours)

Less than or equal to 32

5

8

Greater than or equal to 32 to less than or equal to 40

7

8

PMA: Post-Menstrual age

IV Infusion Rates

Infusion rates for Clindamycin in 5% Dextrose Injection should not exceed 30 mg per minute. The usual infusion rates are as follows:

Dose Strength Time

600 mg/50 mL

12 mg/mL

20 min

900 mg/50 mL

18 mg/mL

30 min

Administration of more than 1,200 mg in a single 1-hour infusion is not recommended.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

Compatibility

No incompatibility has been demonstrated with the antibiotics cephalothin, kanamycin, gentamicin, penicillin or carbenicillin.

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