Prescription Drug Information: Clobazam

CLOBAZAM — clobazam tablet
Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS; ABUSE, MISUSE, AND ADDICTION; and DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAWAL REACTIONS

WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS; ABUSE, MISUSE, AND ADDICTION; and DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAWAL REACTIONS

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.1)].

  • The use of benzodiazepines, including Clobazam tablets, exposes users to risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes. Before prescribing Clobazam tablets and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
  • The continued use of benzodiazepines, including Clobazam tablets, may lead to clinically significant physical dependence. The risks of dependence and withdrawal increase with longer treatment duration and higher daily dose. Abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of Clobazam tablets after continued use may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening. To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue Clobazam tablets or reduce the dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Clobazam tablets are indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years of age or older.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosing Information

A daily dose of clobazam greater than 5 mg should be administered in divided doses twice daily; a 5 mg daily dose can be administered as a single dose. Dose patients according to body weight. Individualize dosing within each body weight group, based on clinical efficacy and tolerability. Each dose in Table 1 (e.g., 5 to 20 mg in ≤30 kg weight group) has been shown to be effective, although effectiveness increases with increasing dose [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Do not proceed with dose escalation more rapidly than weekly, because serum concentrations of clobazam and its active metabolite require 5 and 9 days, respectively, to reach steady-state.

Table 1. Recommended Total Daily Dosing by Weight Group
≤30 kg Body Weight >30 kg Body Weight
Starting Dose 5 mg 10 mg
Starting Day 7 10 mg 20 mg
Starting Day 14 20 mg 40 mg

2.2 Discontinuation or Dosage Reduction of Clobazam tablets

To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, increased seizure frequency, and status epilepticus, use a gradual taper to discontinue clobazam or reduce the dosage. Taper by decreasing the total daily dose by 5 to 10 mg/day on a weekly basis until discontinued. If a patient develops withdrawal reactions, consider pausing the taper or increasing the dosage to the previous tapered dosage level. Subsequently decrease the dosage more slowly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].

2.3 Important Administration Instructions

Clobazam Tablets Oral Administration

Clobazam tablets can be taken with or without food.

Clobazam tablets can be administered whole, broken in half along the score, or crushed and mixed in applesauce.

2.4 Dosage Adjustments in Geriatric Patients

Plasma concentrations at any given dose are generally higher in the elderly: proceed slowly with dose escalation. The starting dose should be 5 mg/day for all elderly patients. Then titrate elderly patients according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on weight) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

2.5 Dosage Adjustments in CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizers

In CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, levels of N-desmethylclobazam, clobazam’s active metabolite, will be increased. Therefore, in patients known to be CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, the starting dose should be 5 mg/day and dose titration should proceed slowly according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].

2.6 Patients with Renal Impairment

No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild and moderate renal impairment.

There is no experience with clobazam in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is not known if clobazam or its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam, is dialyzable [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.7 Dosage Adjustments in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

Clobazam is hepatically metabolized; however, there are limited data to characterize the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of clobazam. For this reason, proceed slowly with dosing escalations. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5 to 9), the starting dose should be 5 mg/day in both weight groups. Then titrate patients according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, start an additional titration on day 21 to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group). There is inadequate information about metabolism of clobazam in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore no dosing recommendation in those patients can be given [see Use in Specific Populations (8.8), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Tablets: 10 mg and 20 mg with a functional score for oral administration.

Clobazam Tablets, 10 mg: White to off-white , oval tablets with functional score on one side with ‘L’ and ‘7’debossed either side of scoreline and plain on other side

Clobazam Tablets, 20 mg: White to off-white , oval tablets with functional score on one side with ‘L’ and ‘8’debossed either side of scoreline and plain on other side

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Clobazam is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients. Hypersensitivity reactions have included serious dermatological reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioids for patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe clobazam concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when clobazam is used with opioids [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5.2 Abuse, Misuse, and Addiction

The use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, exposes users to the risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines often (but not always) involve the use of doses greater than the maximum recommended dosage and commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes, including respiratory depression, overdose, or death [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)].

Before prescribing clobazam and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction (e.g., using a standardized screening tool). Use of clobazam, particularly in patients at elevated risk, necessitates counseling about the risks and proper use of clobazam along with monitoring for signs and symptoms of abuse, misuse, and addiction. Prescribe the lowest effective dosage; avoid or minimize concomitant use of CNS depressants and other substances associated with abuse, misuse, and addiction (e.g., opioid analgesics, stimulants); and advise patients on the proper disposal of unused drug. If a substance use disorder is suspected, evaluate the patient and institute (or refer them for) early treatment, as appropriate.

5.3 Dependence and Withdrawal Reactions

To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue clobazam or reduce the dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

Patients at an increased risk of withdrawal adverse reactions after benzodiazepine discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction include those who take higher dosages, and those who have had longer durations of use.

Acute Withdrawal Reactions

The continued use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, may lead to clinically significant physical dependence. Abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of clobazam after continued use, or administration of flumazenil (a benzodiazepine antagonist) may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening (e.g., seizures) [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].

Protracted Withdrawal Syndrome

In some cases, benzodiazepine users have developed a protracted withdrawal syndrome with withdrawal symptoms lasting weeks to more than 12 months [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].

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