Prescription Drug Information: Clopidogrel (Page 2 of 6)
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of clopidogrel bisulfate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of an unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hemorrhages, including those with fatal outcome, have been reported in patients treated with clopidogrel bisulfate.
- Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia/pancytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), acquired hemophilia A
- Gastrointestinal disorders: Colitis (including ulcerative or lymphocytic colitis), pancreatitis, stomatitis, gastric/duodenal ulcer, diarrhea
- General disorders and administration site condition: Fever
- Hepatobiliary disorders: Acute liver failure, hepatitis (noninfectious), abnormal liver function test
- Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactoid reactions, serum sickness, insulin autoimmune syndrome, which can lead to severe hypoglycemia
- Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: Myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis
- Nervous system disorders: Taste disorders, headache, ageusia
- Psychiatric disorders: Confusion, hallucinations
- Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Bronchospasm, interstitial pneumonitis, eosinophilic pneumonia
- Renal and urinary disorders: Increased creatinine levels
- Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Maculopapular, erythematous or exfoliative rash, urticaria, bullous dermatitis, eczema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), angioedema, drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), erythema multiforme, lichen planus, generalized pruritus
- Vascular disorders: Vasculitis, hypotension
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 CYP2C19 Inducers
Since clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of drugs that induce the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in increased drug levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel.
Rifampin strongly induces CYP2C19 resulting to both an increase level of clopidogrel active metabolite and platelet inhibition, which in particular might potentiate the risk of bleeding. As a precaution, avoid concomitant use of strong CYP2C19 inducers [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
7.2 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of drugs that inhibit the activity of this enzyme results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Omeprazole or Esomeprazole
Avoid concomitant use of clopidogrel bisulfate with omeprazole or esomeprazole. In clinical studies, omeprazole was shown to reduce significantly the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel bisulfate when given concomitantly or 12 hours apart. A similar reduction in antiplatelet activity was observed with esomeprazole when given concomitantly with clopidogrel bisulfate. Dexlansoprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole had less effect on the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel bisulfate than did omeprazole or esomeprazole [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
As with other oral P2Y12 inhibitors, coadministration of opioid agonists delay and reduce the absorption of clopidogrel, presumably because of slowed gastric emptying, resulting in reduced exposure to its metabolites [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Consider the use of a parenteral antiplatelet agent in acute coronary syndrome patients requiring coadministration of morphine or other opioid agonists.
7.4 Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
Coadministration of clopidogrel bisulfate and NSAIDs increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
7.5 Warfarin (CYP2C9 Substrates)
Although the administration of clopidogrel 75 mg per day did not modify the pharmacokinetics of S-warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate) or INR in patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy, coadministration of clopidogrel bisulfate with warfarin increases the risk of bleeding because of independent effects on hemostasis.
However, at high concentrations in vitro , clopidogrel inhibits CYP2C9.
7.6 SSRIs and SNRIs
Since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) affect platelet activation, the concomitant administration of SSRIs and SNRIs with clopidogrel may increase the risk of bleeding.
7.7 Other Antiplatelet Agents
Coadministration of antiplatelet agents increase the risk of bleeding due to an additive effect. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss if patients are treated concomitantly with other antiplatelet agents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
7.8 Repaglinide (CYP2C8 Substrates)
The acyl-β-glucuronide metabolite of clopidogrel is a strong inhibitor of CYP2C8. Clopidogrel bisulfate can increase the systemic exposure to drugs that are primarily cleared by CYP2C8, thereby needing dose adjustment and appropriate monitoring.
Clopidogrel bisulfate increased repaglinide exposures by 3.9-fold to 5.1-fold [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Avoid concomitant use of repaglinide with clopidogrel bisulfate. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, initiate repaglinide at 0.5 mg before each meal and do not exceed a total daily dose of 4 mg. Increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required during concomitant use.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Available data from cases reported in published literature and postmarketing surveillance with clopidogrel use in pregnant women have not identified any drug-associated risks for major birth defects or miscarriage [see Data]. There are risks to the pregnant woman and fetus associated with myocardial infarction and stroke [see Clinical Considerations]. No evidence of fetotoxicity was observed when clopidogrel was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses corresponding to 65 and 78 times the recommended daily human dose [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Myocardial infarction and stroke are medical emergencies. Therapy for the pregnant woman should not be withheld because of potential concerns regarding the effects of clopidogrel on the fetus.
Labor or delivery
Clopidogrel use during labor or delivery will increase the risk of maternal bleeding and hemorrhage. Avoid neuraxial blockade during clopidogrel use because of the risk of spinal hematoma. When possible, discontinue clopidogrel 5 to 7 days prior to labor, delivery, or neuraxial blockade.
The available data from published case reports over two decades of postmarketing use have not identified an association with clopidogrel use in pregnancy and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse fetal outcomes.
Embryo-fetal developmental toxicology studies were performed in pregnant rats and rabbits with doses up to 500 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively, administered during organogenesis. These doses, corresponding to 65 and 78 times the recommended daily human dose, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis, revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or fetotoxicity due to clopidogrel.
There are no data on the presence of clopidogrel in human milk or the effects on milk production. No adverse effects on breastfed infants have been observed with maternal clopidogrel use during lactation in a small number of postmarketing cases. Studies in rats have shown that clopidogrel and/or its metabolites are present in the milk. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with mother’s clinical need for clopidogrel bisulfate and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from clopidogrel bisulfate or from underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric populations have not been established. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial (CLARINET) did not demonstrate a clinical benefit of clopidogrel in neonates and infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with a systemic-to-pulmonary arterial shunt. Possible factors contributing to this outcome were the dose of clopidogrel, the concomitant administration of aspirin, and the late initiation of therapy following shunt palliation. It cannot be ruled out that a trial with a different design would demonstrate a clinical benefit in this patient population.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of subjects in the CAPRIE and CURE controlled clinical studies, approximately 50% of patients treated with clopidogrel bisulfate were 65 years of age and older, and 15% were 75 years and older. In COMMIT, approximately 58% of the patients treated with clopidogrel bisulfate were 60 years and older, 26% of whom were 70 years and older.The observed risk of bleeding events with clopidogrel bisulfate plus aspirin versus placebo plus aspirin by age category is provided in Table 1 and Table 2 for the CURE and COMMIT trials, respectively [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. No dosage adjustment is necessary in elderly patients.
8.6 Renal Impairment
Experience is limited in patients with severe and moderate renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Platelet inhibition by clopidogrel bisulfate is irreversible and will last for the life of the platelet. Overdose following clopidogrel administration may result in bleeding complications. A single oral dose of clopidogrel at 1500 or 2000 mg/kg was lethal to mice and to rats and at 3000 mg/kg to baboons. Symptoms of acute toxicity were vomiting, prostration, difficult breathing, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in animals.
Based on biological plausibility, platelet transfusion may restore clotting ability.
Clopidogrel bisulfate is a thienopyridine class inhibitor of P2Y12 ADP platelet receptors. Chemically it is methyl (+)-(S)-α-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5(4H)-acetate sulfate (1:1). The molecular formula of clopidogrel bisulfate is C16 H16 ClNO2 S•H2 SO4 and its molecular weight is 419.9.
The structural formula is as follows:
Clopidogrel bisulfate USP is a white to off-white powder. It is practically insoluble in water at neutral pH but freely soluble at pH 1. It also dissolves freely in methanol, dissolves sparingly in methylene chloride, and is practically insoluble in ethyl ether. It has a specific optical rotation of about +56°.
Clopidogrel tablets, USP for oral administration are provided as pink colored, round, biconvex, beveled edge, debossed, film-coated tablets containing 97.875 mg of clopidogrel bisulfate which is the molar equivalent of 75 mg of clopidogrel base.Each film-coated tablet contains crospovidone, hydrogenated castor oil, hydroxypropyl cellulose low substituted, hypromellose 15cP, iron oxide red, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 6000, titanium dioxide, and triacetin as inactive ingredients.
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