Experience is limited in patients with severe and moderate renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)] .
Platelet inhibition by clopidogrel bisulfate is irreversible and will last for the life of the platelet. Overdose following clopidogrel administration may result in bleeding complications. A single oral dose of clopidogrel at 1500 or 2000 mg/kg was lethal to mice and to rats and at 3000 mg/kg to baboons. Symptoms of acute toxicity were vomiting, prostration, difficult breathing, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in animals.
Based on biological plausibility, platelet transfusion may restore clotting ability.
Clopidogrel bisulfate is a thienopyridine class inhibitor of P2Y 12 ADP platelet receptors. Chemically it is methyl (+)-( S)-α-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5(4 H)-acetate sulfate (1:1). The empirical formula of clopidogrel bisulfate is C 16 H 16 ClNO 2 S•H 2 SO 4 and its molecular weight is 419.9.
The structural formula is as follows:
Clopidogrel bisulfate is a white to off-white powder. It is practically insoluble in water at neutral pH but freely soluble at pH 1. It also dissolves freely in methanol, dissolves sparingly in methylene chloride, and is practically insoluble in ethyl ether. It has a specific optical rotation of about +56°.
Clopidogrel tablets USP for oral administration is provided as either pink colored, round, biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with “CI” on one side and plain on other side containing 97.875 mg of clopidogrel bisulfate which is the molar equivalent of 75 mg of clopidogrel base or pink colored, oval, biconvex, beveled edged, film coated tablets debossed with “CL” on one side and plain on other side containing 391.5 mg of clopidogrel bisulfate which is the molar equivalent of 300 mg of clopidogrel base.
Each tablet contains colloidal anhydrous silica, hydrogenated castor oil, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose as inactive ingredients. The pink film coating contains hydroxy propylmethyl cellulose, iron oxide red, lactose monohydrate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
Clopidogrel is an inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation through the irreversible binding of its active metabolite to the P2Y 12 class of ADP receptors on platelets.
Clopidogrel must be metabolized by CYP450 enzymes to produce the active metabolite that inhibits platelet aggregation. The active metabolite of clopidogrel selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet P2Y 12 receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. This action is irreversible. Consequently, platelets exposed to clopidogrel’s active metabolite are affected for the remainder of their lifespan (about 7 to 10 days). Platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP.
Dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation can be seen 2 hours after single oral doses of clopidogrel bisulfate. Repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel bisulfate per day inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation on the first day, and inhibition reaches steady state between Day 3 and Day 7. At steady state, the average inhibition level observed with a dose of 75 mg clopidogrel bisulfate per day was between 40% and 60%. Platelet aggregation and bleeding time gradually return to baseline values after treatment is discontinued, generally in about 5 days.
Elderly (≥75 years) and young healthy subjects had similar effects on platelet aggregation.
Renally Impaired Patients
After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel bisulfate per day, patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance from 5 to 15 mL/min) and moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance from 30 to 60 mL/min) showed low (25%) inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation.
Hepatically Impaired Patients
After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel bisulfate per day for 10 days in patients with severe hepatic impairment, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was similar to that observed in healthy subjects.
In a small study comparing men and women, less inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was observed in women.
Clopidogrel is a prodrug and is metabolized to a pharmacologically active metabolite and inactive metabolites.
After single and repeated oral doses of 75 mg per day, clopidogrel is rapidly absorbed. Absorption is at least 50%, based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel metabolites.
Effect of Food
Clopidogrel bisulfate can be administered with or without food. In a study in healthy male subjects when clopidogrel bisulfate 75 mg per day was given with a standard breakfast, mean inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was reduced by less than 9%. The active metabolite AUC 0–24 was unchanged in the presence of food, while there was a 57% decrease in active metabolite C max . Similar results were observed when a clopidogrel bisulfate 300 mg loading dose was administered with a high-fat breakfast.
Clopidogrel is extensively metabolized by two main metabolic pathways: one mediated by esterases and leading to hydrolysis into an inactive carboxylic acid derivative (85% of circulating metabolites) and one mediated by multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochromes first oxidize clopidogrel to a 2-oxoclopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Subsequent metabolism of the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite results in formation of the active metabolite, a thiol derivative of clopidogrel. The active metabolite is formed mostly by CYP2C19 with contributions from several other CYP enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A. The active thiol metabolite binds rapidly and irreversibly to platelet receptors, thus inhibiting platelet aggregation for the lifespan of the platelet.
The C max of the active metabolite is twice as high following a single 300 mg clopidogrel loading dose as it is after four days of 75 mg maintenance dose. C max occurs approximately 30 to 60 minutes after dosing. In the 75 to 300 mg dose range, the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite deviates from dose proportionality: 4-fold the dose results in 2.0-fold and 2.7-fold the C max and AUC, respectively.
Following an oral dose of 14 C-labeled clopidogrel in humans, approximately 50% of total radioactivity was excreted in urine and approximately 46% in feces over the 5 days post-dosing. After a single, oral dose of 75 mg, clopidogrel has a half-life of approximately 6 hours. The half-life of the active metabolite is about 30 minutes.
Effect of other drugs on Clopidogrel Bisulfate
Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19.
Concomitant use of strong inducers of CYP2C19 results in increased plasma concentration of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and an increase in platelet inhibition.
Rifampin: Coadministration of rifampin 300 mg twice daily for 7 days with 600 mg loading dose of clopidogrel in healthy adults increased the mean AUC and Cmax of clopidogrel’s thiol metabolites by 3.8-fold. Mean inhibition of platelet aggregation at 4 hours post-dose was 34% higher in the presence of rifampin compared to clopidogrel administered alone.
Concomitant use of certain inhibitors of this enzyme results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI)
The effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on the systemic exposure to the clopidogrel active metabolite following multiple doses of clopidogrel bisulfate 75 mg evaluated in dedicated drug interaction studies is presented in Figure 1.
Change relative to clopidogrel bisulfate administered alone
Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters measured in these studies showed that the interaction was highest with omeprazole and least with dexlansoprazole.
Co-administration of 5 mg intravenous morphine with 600 mg loading dose of clopidogrel in healthy adults decreased the AUC and C max of clopidogrel’s thiol metabolites by 34%. Mean platelet aggregation was higher up to 2 to 4 hours with morphine co-administration.
Effect of Clopidogrel Bisulfate on other drugs
In vitro studies have shown that the glucuronide metabolite of clopidogrel is a strong inhibitor of CYP2C8. Concomitant administration of repaglinide with clopidogrel bisulfate increased the systemic exposure to repaglinide (AUC 0-∞ ) by 5.1-fold following the loading dose (300 mg) and by 3.9-fold on day 3 of the maintenance dose (75 mg) of clopidogrel bisulfate [see Drug Interactions (7.6)].
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