Prescription Drug Information: Clopidogrel (Page 3 of 6)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Clopidogrel is an inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation through the irreversible binding of its active metabolite to the P2Y 12 class of ADP receptors on platelets.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Clopidogrel must be metabolized by CYP450 enzymes to produce the active metabolite that inhibits platelet aggregation. The active metabolite of clopidogrel selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet P2Y 12 receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. This action is irreversible. Consequently, platelets exposed to clopidogrel’s active metabolite are affected for the remainder of their lifespan (about 7 to 10 days). Platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP.

Dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation can be seen 2 hours after single oral doses of clopidogrel. Repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation on the first day, and inhibition reaches steady state between Day 3 and Day 7. At steady state, the average inhibition level observed with a dose of 75 mg clopidogrel per day was between 40% and 60%. Platelet aggregation and bleeding time gradually return to baseline values after treatment is discontinued, generally in about 5 days.

Geriatric Patients
Elderly (≥75 years) and young healthy subjects had similar effects on platelet aggregation.

Renally-Impaired Patients
After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day, patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance from 5 to 15 mL/min) and moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance from 30 to 60 mL/min) showed low (25%) inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

Hepatically-Impaired Patients
After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day for 10 days in patients with severe hepatic impairment, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was similar to that observed in healthy subjects.

Gender
In a small study comparing men and women, less inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was observed in women.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Clopidogrel is a prodrug and is metabolized to a pharmacologically active metabolite and inactive metabolites.

Absorption
After single and repeated oral doses of 75 mg per day, clopidogrel is rapidly absorbed. Absorption is at least 50%, based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel metabolites.

Effect of Food
Clopidogrel can be administered with or without food. In a study in healthy male subjects when clopidogrel 75 mg per day was given with a standard breakfast, mean inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was reduced by less than 9%. The active metabolite AUC 0–24 was unchanged in the presence of food, while there was a 57% decrease in active metabolite C max .

Similar results were observed when a clopidogrel 300 mg loading dose was administered with a high-fat breakfast.

Metabolism
Clopidogrel is extensively metabolized by two main metabolic pathways: one mediated by esterases and leading to hydrolysis into an inactive carboxylic acid derivative (85% of circulating metabolites) and one mediated by multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochromes first oxidize clopidogrel to a 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Subsequent metabolism of the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite results in formation of the active metabolite, a thiol derivative of clopidogrel. The active metabolite is formed mostly by CYP2C19 with contributions from several other CYP enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A. The active thiol metabolite binds rapidly and irreversibly to platelet receptors, thus inhibiting platelet aggregation for the lifespan of the platelet.

The C max of the active metabolite is twice as high following a single 300 mg clopidogrel loading dose as it is after four days of 75 mg maintenance dose. C max occurs approximately 30 to 60 minutes after dosing. In the 75 to 300 mg dose range, the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite deviates from dose proportionality: 4-fold the dose results in 2.0-fold and 2.7-fold the C max and AUC, respectively.

Elimination
Following an oral dose of 14 C-labeled clopidogrel in humans, approximately 50% of total radioactivity was excreted in urine and approximately 46% in feces over the 5 days post-dosing. After a single, oral dose of 75 mg, clopidogrel has a half-life of approximately 6 hours. The half-life of the active metabolite is about 30 minutes.

Drug Interactions
Effect of other drugs on Clopidogrel

Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of certain inhibitors of this enzyme results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition.

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) The effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on the systemic exposure to the clopidogrel active metabolite following multiple doses of clopidogrel 75 mg evaluated in dedicated drug interaction studies is presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters measured in these studies showed that the interaction was highest with omeprazole and least with dexlansoprazole.

Opioids
Coadministration of 5 mg intravenous morphine with 600 mg loading dose of clopidogrel in healthy adults decreased the AUC and C max of clopidogrel’s thiol metabolites by 34%. Mean platelet aggregation was higher up to 2 to 4 hours with morphine coadministration.

Effect of clopidogrel on other drugs In vitro studies have shown that the glucuronide metabolite of clopidogrel is a strong inhibitor of CYP2C8. Concomitant administration of repaglinide with clopidogrel increased the systemic exposure to repaglinide (AUC 0-∞) by 5.1-fold following the loading dose (300 mg) and by 3.9-fold on day 3 of the maintenance dose (75 mg) of clopidogrel [see Drug Interactions (7.6)].

12.5 Pharmacogenomics

CYP2C19 is involved in the formation of both the active metabolite and the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Clopidogrel active metabolite pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effects, as measured by ex vivo platelet aggregation assays, differ according to CYP2C19 genotype. Patients who are homozygous for nonfunctional alleles of the CYP2C19 gene are termed “CYP2C19 poor metabolizers”. Approximately 2% of White and 4% of Black patients are poor metabolizers; the prevalence of poor metabolism is higher in Asian patients (e.g., 14% of Chinese). Tests are available to identify patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.

A crossover study in 40 healthy subjects, 10 each in the four CYP2C19 metabolizer groups, evaluated pharmacokinetic and antiplatelet responses using 300 mg followed by 75 mg per day and 600 mg followed by 150 mg per day, each for a total of 5 days. Decreased active metabolite exposure and diminished inhibition of platelet aggregation were observed in the poor metabolizers as compared to the other groups.

Table 3: Active Metabolite Pharmacokinetics and Antiplatelet Responses by CYP2C19 Metabolizer Status
*
Intermediate metabolizers have one but not two nonfunctional alleles
Ultrarapid metabolizers have at least one gain-of-function allele
Inhibition of platelet aggregation with 5mcM ADP; larger value indicates greater platelet inhibition
§
Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein – platelet reactivity index; smaller value indicates greater platelet inhibition

Dose

Poor (n=10)

Intermediate * (n=10)

Normal (n=10)

Ultrarapid (n=10)

C max (ng/mL)

300 mg (24 h) 600 mg (24 h) 75 mg (Day 5) 150 mg (Day 5)

11 (4) 17 (6) 4 (1) 7 (2)

23 (11) 39 (23) 12 (5) 18 (7)

32 (21) 44 (27) 13 (7) 19 (5)

24 (10) 36 (13) 12 (6) 16 (9)

IPA (%)

300 mg (24 h) 600 mg (24 h) 75 mg (Day 5) 150 mg (Day 5)

24 (26) 32 (25) 37 (23) 61 (14)

37 (21) 56 (22) 60 (18) 74 (14)

39 (28) 49 (23) 58 (19) 73 (9)

40 (21) 51 (28) 56 (13) 68 (18)

VASP-PRI (%) §

300 mg (24 h) 600 mg (24 h) 75 mg (Day 5) 150 mg (Day 5)

91 (12) 85 (14) 83 (13) 61 (18)

78 (12) 56 (26) 50 (16) 29 (11)

68 (16) 48 (20) 39 (14) 24 (10)

73 (12) 51 (20) 40 (9) 20 (10)

Values are mean (SD)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

There was no evidence of tumorigenicity when clopidogrel was administered for 78 weeks to mice and 104 weeks to rats at dosages up to 77 mg/kg per day, which afforded plasma exposures >25 times that in humans at the recommended daily dose of 75 mg.

Clopidogrel was not genotoxic in four in vitro tests (Ames test, DNA-repair test in rat hepatocytes, gene mutation assay in Chinese hamster fibroblasts, and metaphase chromosome analysis of human lymphocytes) and in one in vivo test (micronucleus test by oral route in mice).

Clopidogrel was found to have no effect on fertility of male and female rats treated prior to pairing and throughout gestation at oral doses up to 400 mg/kg per day (52 times the recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis).

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