Prescription Drug Information: Darifenacin (Page 2 of 5)

6.2 Post Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of darifenacin extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Dermatologic: erythema multiforme, interstitial granuloma annulare

General: hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema with airway obstruction and anaphylactic reaction

Central Nervous: confusion, hallucinations and somnolence

Cardiovascular: palpitations and syncope

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 CYP3A4 Inhibitors

The systemic exposure of darifenacin from darifenacin extended-release tablets is increased in the presence of CYP3A4 inhibitors. The daily dose of darifenacin extended-release tablets should not exceed 7.5 mg when co-administered with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (for example, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, nelfinavir, clarithromycin and nefazadone). No dosing adjustments are recommended in the presence of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (for example, erythromycin, fluconazole, diltiazem and verapamil) [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.2 CYP2D6 Inhibitors

No dosing adjustments are recommended in the presence of CYP2D6 inhibitors (for example, paroxetine, fluoxetine, quinidine and duloxetine) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.3 CYP2D6 Substrates

Caution should be taken when darifenacin extended-release tablets are used concomitantly with medications that are predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6 and which have a narrow therapeutic window (for example, flecainide, thioridazine and tricyclic antidepressants) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.4 CYP3A4 Substrates

Darifenacin (30 mg daily) did not have a significant impact on midazolam (7.5 mg) pharmacokinetics [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.5 Combination oral contraceptives

Darifenacin (10 mg three times daily) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of the combination oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.6 Warfarin

Darifenacin had no significant effect on prothrombin time when a single dose of warfarin 30 mg was co-administered with darifenacin (30 mg daily) at steady-state. Standard therapeutic prothrombin time monitoring for warfarin should be continued.

7.7 Digoxin

Darifenacin (30 mg daily) did not have a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin (0.25 mg) at steady-state. Routine therapeutic drug monitoring for digoxin should be continued [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.8 Other Anticholinergic Agents

The concomitant use of darifenacin extended-release tablets with other anticholinergic agents may increase the frequency and/or severity of dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision and other anticholinergic pharmacological effects. Anticholinergic agents may potentially alter the absorption of some concomitantly administered drugs due to effects on gastrointestinal motility.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no available data on darifenacin extended-release tablets use in pregnant women to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal studies, darifenacin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at plasma exposures of free drug (via AUC) up to 59 and 28 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 15 mg, respectively. Effects on embryofetal development were observed following administration of darifenacin during pregnancy (dilated ureter and/or kidney pelvis in rabbits at about 9 times the MRHD, post-implantation loss in rabbits at about 28 times, and delayed ossification in rats at about 59 times) and during pregnancy and lactation (developmental delays in rats at about 17 times the MRHD), which was associated with maternal toxicity (see Data). Dystocia was observed in rat dams at about 17 times the MRHD.

In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

Embryofetal development studies were conducted with oral darifenacin in female rats (0, 3, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (0, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis (gestation days 6 to 17 in the rat and gestation days 6 to 18 in the rabbit).

Darifenacin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at plasma exposures of free drug (via AUC) up to 59 times and 28 times, respectively (doses up to 50 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively) the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 15 mg.

At approximately 59 times the MRHD in pregnant rats, there was a delay in the ossification of the sacral and caudal vertebrae (associated with a decrease in maternal and pup body weight gains) which was not observed at an exposure approximately 13 times the AUC at the MRHD. At five times the AUC (3 mg/kg/day), there were no effects on dams or pups.

In pregnant rabbits, an exposure of darifenacin approximately 28 times the AUC at the MRHD of 15 mg (30 mg/kg/day) was shown to increase post-implantation loss (associated with decreased maternal body weight gain), with a no effect level at 10 mg/kg/day (9 times the AUC at the MRHD). Dilated ureter and/or kidney pelvis was also observed in offspring at this highest dose along with urinary bladder dilation consistent with the pharmacological action of darifenacin, with one case observed at the mid dose of 10 mg/kg/day (9 times the MRHD ). No effect was observed at the lowest dose of 3 mg/kg/day ((approximately 2.8 times the AUC at the MRHD).

A pre- and post-natal development study was conducted with oral darifenacin in female rats (0, 3, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day) throughout gestation and lactation. Decreased body weight gain and dystocia were observed in dams at 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 17 times the MRHD) and above. Slight developmental delays (surface righting reflex, incisor eruption, eyelid opening, vaginal opening, preputial separation) were observed in pups at these doses. At 5 times the AUC at the MRHD (3 mg/kg/day), there were no effects on dams or pups.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of darifenacin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects of darifenacin extended-release tablets on milk production. Darifenacin is present in rat milk [see Data]. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for darifenacin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from darifenacin or from the underlying maternal conditions.

Data

After a single oral dose of 14 C radiolabeled darifenacin to lactating rats, darifenacin was detected in maternal milk.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of darifenacin extended-release tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

In the fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, clinical studies, 30% of patients treated with darifenacin extended-release tablets were over 65 years of age. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between patients over 65 years (n = 207) and younger patients less than 65 years (n = 464). No dose adjustment is recommended for elderly patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14)].

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

Subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) have not been studied, therefore darifenacin extended-release tablets are not recommended for use in these patients [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. The daily dose of darifenacin extended-release tablets should not exceed 7.5 mg once daily for patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. After adjusting for plasma protein binding, unbound darifenacin exposure was estimated to be 4.7-fold higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than subjects with normal hepatic function. No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A).

8.7 Renal Impairment

A study of subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment (creatinine clearance between 10 and 136 mL/min) demonstrated no clear relationship between renal function and darifenacin clearance. No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.8 Gender

No dose adjustment is recommended based on gender [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Overdosage with antimuscarinic agents, including darifenacin extended-release tablets, can result in severe antimuscarinic effects. Treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. In the event of overdosage, ECG monitoring is recommended. Darifenacin extended-release tablets have been administered in clinical trials at doses up to 75 mg (five times the maximum therapeutic dose) and signs of overdose were limited to abnormal vision.

11 DESCRIPTION

Darifenacin is an extended-release tablet for oral administration which contains 7.5 mg or 15 mg darifenacin as its hydrobromide salt. The active moiety, darifenacin, is a potent muscarinic receptor antagonist.
Chemically, darifenacin hydrobromide is (S) -2-{1-[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-3- pyrrolidinyl}-2,2-diphenylacetamide hydrobromide. The molecular formula of darifenacin hydrobromide is C28 H30 N2 O2 •HBr. The structural formula is:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Darifenacin hydrobromide is a white to off -white powder, with a molecular weight of 507.5.
Darifenacin is a once-a-day extended-release tablet and contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, ethyl cellulose, hydroxy ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, povidone, talc, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the 15 mg tablet also contains red iron oxide and yellow iron oxide.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Darifenacin is a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist. Muscarinic receptors play a role in cholinergically mediated functions, including contractions of the urinary bladder smooth muscle.

In vitro studies using human recombinant muscarinic receptor subtypes show that darifenacin has greater affinity for the M3 receptor than for the other known muscarinic receptors (9- and 12-fold greater affinity for M3 compared to M1 and M5 , respectively, and 59-fold greater affinity for M3 compared to both M2 and M4 ). M3 receptors are involved in contraction of human bladder.

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