Prescription Drug Information: DARZALEX (Page 6 of 8)

14.2 Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Combination Treatment with Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone

POLLUX (NCT02076009), an open-label, randomized, active-controlled trial, compared treatment with DARZALEX 16 mg/kg in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (DRd) to treatment with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) in patients with multiple myeloma who had received at least one prior therapy. Lenalidomide (25 mg once daily orally on Days 1–21 of repeated 28-day [4-week] cycles) was given with low dose oral or intravenous dexamethasone 40 mg/week (or a reduced dose of 20 mg/week for patients >75 years or BMI <18.5). On DARZALEX infusion days, 20 mg of the dexamethasone dose was given as a pre-infusion medication and the remainder given the day after the infusion. For patients on a reduced dexamethasone dose, the entire 20 mg dose was given as a DARZALEX pre-infusion medication. Dose adjustments for lenalidomide and dexamethasone were applied according to manufacturer’s prescribing information. Treatment was continued in both arms until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

A total of 569 patients were randomized; 286 to the DRd arm and 283 to the Rd arm. The baseline demographic and disease characteristics were similar between the DARZALEX and the control arm. The median patient age was 65 years (range 34 to 89 years), 11% were ≥75 years, 59% were male; 69% White, 18% Asian, and 3% African American. Patients had received a median of 1 prior line of therapy. Sixty-three percent (63%) of patients had received prior autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The majority of patients (86%) received a prior PI, 55% of patients had received a prior immunomodulatory agent, including 18% of patients who had received prior lenalidomide; and 44% of patients had received both a prior PI and immunomodulatory agent. At baseline, 27% of patients were refractory to the last line of treatment. Eighteen percent (18%) of patients were refractory to a PI only, and 21% were refractory to bortezomib. Efficacy was evaluated by PFS based on IMWG criteria.

POLLUX demonstrated an improvement in PFS in the DRd arm as compared to the Rd arm (HR=0.37; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.52; p<0.0001), representing a 63% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death in patients treated with DRd. After a median follow-up of 55 months, the median PFS was 45.0 months (95% CI: 34.1, 53.9) in the DRd arm and was 17.5 months (95% CI: 13.9, 20.8) in the Rd arm.

*
PFS median follow-up of 13.5 months
Figure 5: Kaplan-Meier Curve of PFS in POLLUX *

Figure 5
(click image for full-size original)

Additional efficacy results from POLLUX are presented in Table 26.

Table 26: Additional Efficacy Results From POLLUX *
DRd (N=286)Rd (N=283)
DRd = daratumumab- lenalidomide-dexamethasone; Rd = lenalidomide-dexamethasone
*
Based on Intent-to-treat population
p-value from Cochran Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Squared test.
Overall response (sCR+CR+VGPR+PR)261 (91.3%)211 (74.6%)
p-value <0.0001
Stringent complete response (sCR)51 (17.8%)20 (7.1%)
Complete response (CR)70 (24.5%)33 (11.7%)
Very good partial response (VGPR)92 (32.2%)69 (24.4%)
Partial response (PR)48 (16.8%)89 (31.4%)

In responders, the median time to response was 1 month (range: 0.9 to 13 months) in the DRd group and 1.1 months (range: 0.9 to 10 months) in the Rd group. The median duration of response had not been reached in the DRd group (range: 1+ to 19.8+ months) and was 17.4 months (range: 1.4 to 18.5+ months) in the Rd group.

With a median follow-up of 13.5 months, 75 deaths were observed; 30 in the DRd group and 45 in the Rd group.

Combination Treatment with Bortezomib and Dexamethasone

CASTOR (NCT02136134), an open-label, randomized, active-controlled Phase 3 trial, compared treatment with DARZALEX 16 mg/kg in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone (DVd), to treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with multiple myeloma who had received at least one prior therapy. Bortezomib was administered by SC injection or IV injection at a dose of 1.3 mg/m2 body surface area twice weekly for two weeks (Days 1, 4, 8, and 11) of repeated 21 day (3-week) treatment cycles, for a total of 8 cycles. Dexamethasone was administered orally at a dose of 20 mg on Days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 of each of the 8 bortezomib cycles (80 mg/week for two out of three weeks of the bortezomib cycle) or a reduced dose of 20 mg/week for patients >75 years, BMI <18.5, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus or prior intolerance to steroid therapy. On the days of DARZALEX infusion, 20 mg of the dexamethasone dose was administered as a pre-infusion medication. For patients on a reduced dexamethasone dose, the entire 20 mg dose was given as a DARZALEX pre-infusion medication. Bortezomib and dexamethasone were given for 8 three-week cycles in both treatment arms; whereas DARZALEX was given until disease progression. However, dexamethasone 20 mg was continued as a DARZALEX pre-infusion medication in the DVd arm. Dose adjustments for bortezomib and dexamethasone were applied according to manufacturer’s prescribing information.

A total of 498 patients were randomized; 251 to the DVd arm and 247 to the Vd arm. The baseline demographic and disease characteristics were similar between the DARZALEX and the control arm. The median patient age was 64 years (range 30 to 88 years); 12% were ≥75 years, 57% were male; 87% White, 5% Asian and 4% African American. Patients had received a median of 2 prior lines of therapy and 61% of patients had received prior autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Sixty-nine percent (69%) of patients had received a prior PI (66% received bortezomib) and 76% of patients received an immunomodulatory agent (42% received lenalidomide). At baseline, 32% of patients were refractory to the last line of treatment and the proportions of patients refractory to any specific prior therapy were in general well balanced between the treatment groups. Thirty-three percent (33%) of patients were refractory to an immunomodulatory agent only, with 24% patients in the DVd arm and 33% of patients in the Vd arm respectively refractory to lenalidomide. Efficacy was evaluated by PFS based on IMWG criteria.

CASTOR demonstrated an improvement in PFS in the DVd arm as compared to the Vd arm (HR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.53; p<0.0001), representing a 61% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death for patients treated with DVd versus Vd. After a median follow-up of 50 months, the median PFS was 16.7 months (95% CI: 13.1, 19.4) in the DVd arm and was 7.1 months (95% CI: 6.2, 7.7) in the Vd arm.

*
PFS median follow-up of 7.4 months
Figure 6: Kaplan-Meier Curve of PFS in CASTOR *

Figure 6
(click image for full-size original)

Additional efficacy results from CASTOR are presented in Table 27.

Table 27: Additional Efficacy Results From CASTOR *
DVd (N=251)Vd (N=247)
DVd = daratumumab- bortezomib-dexamethasone; Vd = bortezomib-dexamethasone
*
Based on Intent-to-treat population
p-value from Cochran Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Squared test.
Overall response (sCR+CR+VGPR+PR)199 (79.3%)148 (59.9%)
P-value <0.0001
Stringent complete response (sCR)11 (4.4%)5 (2.0%)
Complete response (CR)35 (13.9%)16 (6.5%)
Very good partial response (VGPR)96 (38.2%)47 (19.0%)
Partial response (PR)57 (22.7%)80 (32.4%)

In responders, the median time to response was 0.8 months (range: 0.7 to 4 months) in the DVd group and 1.5 months (range: 0.7 to 5 months) in the Vd group. The median duration of response had not been reached in the DVd group (range: 1.4+ to 14.1+ months) and was 7.9 months (1.4+ to 12+ months) in the Vd group.

With a median follow-up of 7.4 months, 65 deaths were observed; 29 in the DVd group and 36 in the Vd group were observed.

Combination Treatment with Twice-Weekly (20/56 mg/m2) Carfilzomib and Dexamethasone

CANDOR (NCT03158688) was a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial which evaluated the combination of DARZALEX with twice-weekly carfilzomib and dexamethasone (DKd) versus twice-weekly carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Kd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received at least 1 to 3 prior lines of therapy. Patients who had the following were excluded from the trial: known moderate or severe persistent asthma within the past 2 years, known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a FEV1 <50% of predicted normal, and active congestive heart failure. Randomization was stratified by the ISS (stage 1 or 2 vs stage 3) at screening, prior proteasome inhibitor exposure (yes vs no), number of prior lines of therapy (1 vs ≥2), or prior cluster differentiation antigen 38 (CD38) antibody therapy (yes vs no).

DARZALEX was administered intravenously at a dose of 8 mg/kg in Cycle 1 on Days 1 and 2. Thereafter, DARZALEX was administered intravenously at a dose of 16 mg/kg on Days 8, 15 and 22 of Cycle 1; Days 1, 8 and 15 and 22 of Cycle 2; Days 1 and 15 of Cycles 3 to 6; and Day 1 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression. Carfilzomib was administered intravenously at a dose of 20 mg/m2 in Cycle 1 on Days 1 and 2; at a dose of 56 mg/m2 in Cycle 1 on Days 8, 9, 15, and 16 ; and at a dose 56 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of each 28-day cycle thereafter. Dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 and then 40 mg orally or intravenously on Day 22 of each 28-day cycle. For patients >75 years on a reduced dexamethasone dose of 20 mg, the entire 20 mg dose was given as a DARZALEX pre-infusion medication on days when DARZALEX was administered. Dosing of dexamethasone was otherwise split across days when carfilzomib was administered in both study arms. Treatment was continued in both arms until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

A total of 466 patients were randomized; 312 to the DKd arm and 154 to the Kd arm. The baseline demographic and disease characteristics were similar between arms. The median age was 64 years (range 29 to 84 years), 9% were ≥75 years, 58% were male; 79% White, 14% Asian, and 2% Black. Patients had received a median of 2 prior lines of therapy and 58% of patients had received prior autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The majority of patients (92%) received a prior PI and of those 34% were refractory to PI including regimen. Fourty-two percent (42%) of patients had received prior lenalidomide and of those, 33% were refractory to a lenalidomide containing regimen.

Efficacy was evaluated by IRC evaluation of PFS based on the IMWG response criteria. Efficacy results are provided in Figure 7. CANDOR demonstrated an improvement in PFS in the DKd arm as compared to the Kd arm; the median PFS had not been reached in the DKd arm and was 15.8 months in the Kd arm (hazard ratio [HR]=0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.85; p=0.0014), representing 37% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death for patients treated with DKd versus Kd.

Figure 7: Kaplan-Meier Curve of PFS in CANDOR

Figure 7
(click image for full-size original)

Additional efficacy results from CANDOR are presented in Table 28.

Table 28: Additional Efficacy Results From CANDOR (Intent-to-Treat Population)
DKd (N=312)Kd (N=154)
DKd = daratumumab-carfilzomib-dexamethasone; Kd =carfilzomib-dexamethasone; MRD [-] CR=minimal residual disease; CI=confidence interval
*
p-value from the stratified Cochran Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Squared test
MRD[-]CR (at a 10-5 level) is defined as achievement of CR per IMWG-URC and MRD[-] status as assessed by the next-generation sequencing assay (ClonoSEQ)
Overall response (sCR+CR+VGPR+PR) n(%)263 (84%)115 (75%)
95% CI (%)(80, 88)(67, 81)
p-value * (1-sided)0.0040
Complete response (CR)89 (28%)16 (10%)
Very good partial response (VGPR)127 (41%)59 (38%)
Partial response (PR)47 (15%)40 (26%)
MRD [-] CR rate at 12 months n(%)39 (12%)2 (1.3%)
95% CI (%)(9, 17)(0.2, 4.6)
p-value * (1-sided)<0.0001
MRD [-] CR 43 (14%)5 (3.2%)

The median time to response was 1 month (range: 1 to 14 months) in the DKd group and 1 month (range: 1 to 10 months) in the Kd group. The median duration of response had not been reached in the DKd group and was 16.6 months (95% CI: 13.9, not estimable) in the Kd group.

Combination Treatment with Once-Weekly (20/70 mg/m2) Carfilzomib and Dexamethasone

EQUULEUS (NCT01998971) was an open-label, multi-cohort trial which evaluated the combination of DARZALEX with one-weekly carfilzomib and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received at least 1 to 3 prior lines of therapy. Patients who had the following were excluded from the trial: known moderate or severe persistent asthma within the past 2 years, known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a FEV1 <50% of predicted normal, or active congestive heart failure (defined as New York Heart Association Class III–IV).

Ten patients were administered DARZALEX at a dose of 16 mg/kg intravenously on Cycle 1, Day 1 and the remaining patients were administered DARZALEX at a dose of 8 mg/kg intravenously on Cycle 1, Days 1 and 2. Thereafter, DARZALEX was administered intravenously at a dose of 16 mg/kg on Days 8, 15 and 22 of Cycle 1; Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of Cycle 2; Days 1 and 15 of Cycles 3 to 6; and then Day 1 for the remaining cycles of each 28 day cycle. Carfilzomib was administered intravenously once weekly at a dose of 20 mg/m2 on Cycle 1 Day 1 and escalated to dose of 70 mg/m2 on Cycle 1 Days 8 and 15, and Days 1, 8, and 15 of each subsequent 28-day cycle. In Cycles 1 and 2, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22 and 23; in cycles 3 to 6, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 15 and 16 and at a dose of 40 mg on Day 8 and 22; and in cycles 7 and thereafter, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1 and 2 and at a dose of 40 mg on Days 8, 15, and 22. For patients >75 years of age, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously weekly after the first week. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

The EQUULEUS trial enrolled 85 patients. The median patient age was 66 years (range: 38 to 85 years) with 9% of patients ≥75 years of age; 54% were male; 80% were White, 3.5% were Black and 3.5% were Asian. Patients in the study had received a median of 2 prior lines of therapy. Seventy-three percent (73%) of patients had received prior ASCT. All patients received prior bortezomib, and 95% of patients received prior lenalidomide. Fifty-nine percent (59%) of patients were refractory to lenalidomide and 29% of patients were refractory to both a PI an IMiD.

Efficacy results were based on overall response rate using IMWG criteria. Efficacy results are provided in Table 29. The median time to response was 0.95 months (range: 0.9, 14.3). The median duration of response was 28 months (95% CI: 20.5, not estimable).

Table 29: Efficacy results for EQUULEUS
N=85
ORR = sCR+CR+VGPR+PRCI = confidence interval
Overall response rate (ORR) 69 (81%)
95% CI (%) (71, 89)
Stringent complete response (sCR) 18 (21%)
Complete response (CR) 12 (14%)
Very good partial response (VGPR) 28 (33%)
Partial response (PR) 11 (13%)

Combination Treatment with Pomalidomide and Dexamethasone

EQUULEUS (NCT01998971) was an open-label trial in which 103 patients with multiple myeloma who had received a prior PI and an immunomodulatory agent, received 16 mg/kg DARZALEX in combination with pomalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression. Pomalidomide (4 mg once daily orally on Days 1–21 of repeated 28-day [4-week] cycles) was given with low dose oral or intravenous dexamethasone 40 mg/week (reduced dose of 20 mg/week for patients >75 years or BMI <18.5). On DARZALEX infusion days, 20 mg of the dexamethasone dose was given as a pre-infusion medication and the remainder given the day after the infusion. For patients on a reduced dexamethasone dose, the entire 20 mg dose was given as a DARZALEX pre-infusion medication.

The median patient age was 64 years (range: 35 to 86 years) with 8% of patients ≥75 years of age. Patients in the study had received a median of 4 prior lines of therapy. Seventy-four percent (74%) of patients had received prior ASCT. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of patients received prior bortezomib treatment, and 33% of patients received prior carfilzomib. All patients received prior lenalidomide treatment, with 98% of patients previously treated with the combination of bortezomib and lenalidomide. Eighty nine percent (89%) of patients were refractory to lenalidomide and 71% refractory to bortezomib; 64% of patients were refractory to bortezomib and lenalidomide.

Efficacy results were based on overall response rate as determined by Independent Review Committee using IMWG criteria (see Table 30).

Table 30: Efficacy Results for EQUULEUS
N=103
ORR = sCR+CR+VGPR+PRCI = Confidence Interval
Overall response rate (ORR) 61 (59.2%)
95% CI (%) (49.1, 68.8)
Stringent complete response (sCR) 8 (7.8%)
Complete response (CR) 6 (5.8%)
Very good partial response (VGPR) 29 (28.2%)
Partial response (PR) 18 (17.5%)

The median time to response was 1 month (range: 0.9 to 2.8 months). The median duration of response was 13.6 months (range: 0.9+ to 14.6+ months).

Monotherapy

SIRIUS (NCT01985126), was an open-label trial evaluating DARZALEX monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received at least 3 prior lines of therapy including a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory agent or who were double-refractory to a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory agent. In 106 patients, DARZALEX 16 mg/kg was administered with pre- and post-infusion medication. Treatment continued until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression.

The median patient age was 63.5 years (range: 31 to 84 years), 49% were male and 79% were White. Patients had received a median of 5 prior lines of therapy. Eighty percent of patients had received prior autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Prior therapies included bortezomib (99%), lenalidomide (99%), pomalidomide (63%) and carfilzomib (50%). At baseline, 97% of patients were refractory to the last line of treatment, 95% were refractory to both, a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and immunomodulatory agent, and 77% were refractory to alkylating agents.

Efficacy results were based on overall response rate as determined by the Independent Review Committee assessment using IMWG criteria (see Table 31).

Table 31: Efficacy Results for SIRIUS
N=106
ORR = sCR+CR+VGPR+PRCI = confidence interval
Overall response rate (ORR) 31 (29.2%)
95% CI (%) (20.8, 38.9)
Stringent complete response (sCR) 3 (2.8%)
Complete response (CR) 0
Very good partial response (VGPR) 10 (9.4%)
Partial response (PR) 18 (17.0%)

The median time to response was 1 month (range: 0.9 to 5.6 months). The median duration of response was 7.4 months (range: 1.2 to 13.1+ months).

Study GEN501 (NCT00574288) was an open-label dose escalation trial evaluating DARZALEX monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received at least 2 different cytoreductive therapies. In 42 patients, DARZALEX 16 mg/kg was administered with pre- and post-infusion medication. Treatment continued until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression.

The median patient age was 64 years (range: 44 to 76 years), 64% were male and 76% were White. Patients in the study had received a median of 4 prior lines of therapy. Seventy-four percent of patients had received prior ASCT. Prior therapies included bortezomib (100%), lenalidomide (95%), pomalidomide (36%) and carfilzomib (19%). At baseline, 76% of patients were refractory to the last line of treatment, 64% of patients were refractory to both, a PI and an immunomodulatory agent, and 60% of patients were refractory to alkylating agents.

Overall response rate was 36% (95% CI: 21.6, 52.0%) with 1 CR and 3 VGPR. The median time to response was 1 month (range: 0.5 to 3.2 months). The median duration of response was not estimable (range: 2.2 to 13.1+ months).

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