Prescription Drug Information: Demeclocycline Hydrochloride

DEMECLOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE — demeclocycline hydrochloride tablet
Carilion Materials Management

Full Prescribing Information

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets and other antibacterial drugs, demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Demeclocycline hydrochloride is an antibiotic isolated from a mutant strain of . Chemically it is 7-Chloro-4-(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,6,10,12, 12a-pentahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride. Its structural formula is: Streptomyces aureofaciens

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Demeclocycline hydrochloride film coated tablets for oral administration contain 150 mg or 300 mg of demeclocycline hydrochloride and the following inactive ingredients: alginic acid, corn starch, ethylcellulose, FD&C Red 40 aluminum lake, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium lauryl sulfate, talc and titanium dioxide. In addition, the 150 mg tablet contains D&C Red 27 aluminum lake.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The absorption of demeclocycline is slower than that of tetracycline. The time to reach the peak concentration is about 4 hours. After a 150 mg oral dose of demeclocycline tablet, the mean concentrations at 1 hour and 3 hours are 0.46 and 1.22 mcg/mL (n = 6), respectively. The serum half-life ranges between 10 and 16 hours. Pharmacokinetics

When demeclocycline hydrochloride is given concomitantly with some dairy products, or antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, the extent of absorption is reduced by more than 50%.

Demeclocycline hydrochloride penetrates well into various body fluids and tissues. The percent of demeclocycline hydrochloride bound to plasma protein is about 40% using a dialysis equilibrium method and 90% using an ultra-filtration method. Demeclocycline hydrochloride, like other tetracyclines, is concentrated in the liver and excreted into the bile where it is found in much higher concentrations than in the blood. The rate of demeclocycline hydrochloride renal clearance (35 mL/min/1.73 m ) is less than half that of tetracycline. Following a single 150 mg dose of demeclocycline hydrochloride in normal volunteers, 44% (n = 8) was excreted in urine and 13% and 46%, respectively, were excreted in feces in two patients within 96 hours as active drug. 2

The tetracyclines are primarily bacteriostatic and are thought to exert their antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The tetracyclines, including demeclocycline, have a similar antimicrobial spectrum of activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. Cross-resistance of these organisms to tetracyclines is common. Microbiology

Demeclocycline has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both and in clinical infections as described in the section. in vitro INDICATIONS AND USAGE

AEROBIC GRAM-POSITIVE MICROORGANISMS:
Bacillus anthracis Listeria monocytogenes
Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pneumoniae

AEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE MICROORGANISMS:
Bartonella bacilliformis species Brucella
Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Campylobacter fetus
Francisella tularensis Haemophilus ducreyi
Haemophilus influenzae Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Vibrio cholerae Yersinia pestis

Because many strains of the following groups of gram-negative microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are especially recommended:

species Acinetobacter Enterobacter aerogenes
Escherichia coli species Klebsiella
Shigella species
OTHER MICROORGANISMS:
Actinomyces israelii Borrelia recurrentis
Chlamydia psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis
species Clostridium species Entamoeba
Fusobacterium fusiforme Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Propionibacterium acnes Rickettsiae
subspecies Treponema pallidum pallidum subspecies Treponema pallidum pertenue
Ureaplasma urealyticum

Susceptibility Tests

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of demeclocycline hydrochloride or tetracycline powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria: 1

For organisms other than species, and species: Haemophilus Neisseria gonorrhoeae Streptococcus 2

MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation
≤ 4 Susceptible (S)
8 Intermediate (I)
≥16 Resistant (R)

For and species: Haemophilus Streptococcus 2

MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation
≤ 2 Susceptible (S)
4 Intermediate (I)
≥8 Resistant (R)

For : Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2

MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation
≤ 0.25 Susceptible (S)
0.5 to 1 Intermediate (I)
≥2 Resistant (R)

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited by usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in blood. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in the blood are unlikely to be inhibitory and that other therapy should be selected.

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard demeclocycline or tetracycline powder should provide the following MIC values: 2

Microorganism MIC (mcg/mL) Microorganism MIC (mcg/mL)
ATCC 25922 E.coli, 1 to 4 ATCC 49226 N. gonorrhoeae, 0.25 to 1
ATCC 29212 E. faecalis, 8 to 32 ATCC 29213 S. aureus, 0.25 to 1
ATCC 49247 H. influenzae, 4 to 32 ATCC 49619 S. pneumoniae, 0.12 to 0.5

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30-mcg tetracycline (as a class disk) or a 30-mcg demeclocycline hydrochloride disk to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to demeclocycline. Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with either a 30-mcg tetracycline-class disk or a 30-mcg demeclocycline disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria: For organisms other than species, and species: Diffusion Techniques
2 Haemophilus Neisseria gonorrhoeae Streptococcus 2

Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥ 19 Susceptible (S)
15 to 18 Intermediate (I)
≤ 14 Resistant (R)

For species: Haemophilus 2

Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥ 29 Susceptible (S)
26 to 28 Intermediate (I)
≤ 25 Resistant (R)

For : N. gonorrhoeae 2

Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥ 38 Susceptible (S)
31 to 37 Intermediate (I)
≤ 30 Resistant (R)

For species: Streptococcus 2

Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥ 23 Susceptible (S)
19 to 22 Intermediate (I)
≤ 18 Resistant (R)

Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for demeclocycline hydrochloride or tetracycline.

As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 30-mcg demeclocycline hydrochloride disk or the 30-mcg tetracycline-class disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains: 2

Microorganism Zone Diameter (mm)
, ATCC 25922 E. coli 18 to 25
ATCC 49247 H. influenzae, 14 to 22
, ATCC 49226 N. gonorrhoeae 30 to 42
, ATCC 25923 S. aureus 24 to 30
, ATCC 49619 S. pneumoniae 27 to 31
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