DEMEROL (meperidine hydrochloride injection) is an opioid agonist available as a sterile aqueous solution, for intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous administration. It contains meperidine hydrochloride as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Meperidine hydrochloride chemical name is 4‑Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 1‑methyl-4-phenyl-,ethyl ester, hydrochloride. The molecular weight is 283.79 g/mol. Its molecular formula is C15 H21 NO2 ·HCl, and it has the following chemical structure.
Meperidine hydrochloride is a white crystalline substance with a melting point of 186° C to 189° C, and it is readily soluble in water.
DEMEROL (meperidine hydrochloride injection) is available as:
Single-dose Carpuject cartridge with Luer Lock for the Carpuject Syringe System: 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL. Each mL of Single-dose cartridge contains 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg or 100 mg of meperidine hydrochloride USP (equivalent to 21.79 mg, 43.58 mg, 65.36 mg or 87.15 mg of meperidine), respectively, and sodium hydroxide NF, and hydrochloric acid NF as pH adjusters, in water for injection. Only the 25 mg strength contains 3.8 mg of sodium chloride USP as isotonicity agent.
Multiple-dose vials: 1,500 mg/30 mL (50 mg/mL) strength. Each mL of vial contains 50 mg of meperidine hydrochloride USP (equivalent to 43.58 mg of meperidine), 1 mg of meta-cresol USP, as a preservative, and sodium hydroxide NF, and hydrochloric acid NF as pH adjusters, in water for injection.
Single-dose NexJect™ Prefilled Syringe with Luer Lock: 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL strengths. Each mL contains 25 mg, 50 mg or 75 mg or 100 mg of meperidine hydrochloride USP (equivalent to 21.79 mg, 43.58 mg, 65.36 mg or 87.15 mg of meperidine), respectively, and sodium hydroxide NF, and hydrochloric acid NF as pH adjusters, in water for injection. Only the 25 mg strength contains 3.8 mg of sodium chloride USP as isotonicity agent.
The pH of DEMEROL (meperidine hydrochloride injection) solutions is between 3.5 and 6.0.
DEMEROL (meperidine hydrochloride injection) 5 percent solution has a specific gravity of 1.0086 at 20°C, and the 10 percent solution has a specific gravity of 1.0165 at 20°C.
Meperidine hydrochloride is an opioid agonist with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of morphine; the most prominent of these involve the central nervous system and organs composed of smooth muscle. The principal actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation.
Effects on the Central Nervous System
Meperidine produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation.
Meperidine causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen due to hypoxia in overdose situations.
Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle
Meperidine causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone may be increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.
Effects of the Cardiovascular System
Meperidine produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Manifestations of histamine release and/or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, and sweating and/or orthostatic hypotension.
Effects on the Endocrine System
Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormones (LH) in humans [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.
Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
Effects on the Immune System
Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive.
The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with potent agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of meperidine for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.3)].
Meperidine, in 60 mg to 80 mg parenteral doses, is approximately equivalent in analgesic effect to 10 mg of morphine. The onset of action is slightly more rapid than with morphine, and the duration of action is slightly shorter. Meperidine is significantly less effective by the oral than by the parenteral route, but the exact ratio of oral to parenteral effectiveness is unknown.
Concentration–Adverse Reaction Relationships
There is a relationship between increasing meperidine plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.3)].
The half-life of meperidine is 2 to 5 hours, and the half-life of normeperidine is 15 to 30 hours.
Meperidine is metabolized through biotransformation. In vitro data show meperidine is metabolized to normeperidine in liver mainly by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.
The elimination half-life is 3 to 8 hours in healthy volunteers and is 1.3 to 2 times greater in post-operative or cirrhotic patients.
Meperidine and normeperidine are excreted by kidneys.
In clinical studies reported in the literature, changes in several pharmacokinetic parameters with increasing age have been observed. The initial volume of distribution and steady-state volume of distribution may be higher in elderly patients than in younger patients. The free fraction of meperidine in plasma may be higher in patients over 45 years of age than in younger patients.
Drug Interactions Studies
Phenytoin: The hepatic metabolism of meperidine may be enhanced by phenytoin. Concomitant administration resulted in reduced half-life and bioavailability with increased clearance of meperidine in healthy subjects; however, blood concentrations of normeperidine were increased [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Ritonavir: Plasma concentrations of the active metabolite normeperidine may be increased by ritonavir [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Acyclovir: Plasma concentrations of meperidine and its metabolite, normeperidine, may be increased by acyclovir [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Cimetidine: Cimetidine reduced the clearance and volume of distribution of meperidine and also the formation of the metabolite, normeperidine, in healthy subjects [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of meperidine have not been conducted.
Studies in animals to evaluate the mutagenic potential of meperidine have not been conducted.
Impairment of Fertility
Studies to determine the effect of meperidine on fertility have not been conducted.
For Parenteral Use
DEMEROL (meperidine hydrochloride injection), for subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous use, is clear and colorless, and available as follows:
|Unit of Sale||Concentration (per total volume)|
NDC 0409-1181-30 Carton of 130 mL fill in 30 mL Multiple-dose Vial
1,500 mg/30 mL(50 mg/mL)
NDC 0409-1176-30 Carton of 101 mL fill in 2.5 mL Carpuject Single-dose cartridge with Luer Lock
NDC 0409-1178-30 Carton of 101 mL fill in 2.5 mL Carpuject Single-dose cartridge with Luer Lock
NDC 0409-1179-30 Carton of 101 mL fill in 2.5 mL Carpuject Single-dose cartridge with Luer Lock
NDC 0409-1180-69 Carton of 101 mL fill in 2.5 mL Carpuject Single-dose cartridge with Luer Lock
NDC 0409-1362-01 Clamshell of 101 mL fill in 1.5 mL NexJect™ Single-dosePrefilled Syringe with Luer Lock
NDC 0409-1418-01 Clamshell of 101 mL fill in 1.5 mL NexJect™ Single-dosePrefilled Syringe with Luer Lock
NDC 0409-2033-01 Clamshell of 101 mL fill in 1.5 mL NexJect™ Single-dosePrefilled Syringe with Luer Lock
NDC 0409-1377-01 Clamshell of 101 mL fill in 1.5 mL NexJect™ Single-dosePrefilled Syringe with Luer Lock
Carpuject Single-dose cartridge are packaged in a Slim-Pak tamper detection package. Note that a needle is not included.
Carpuject and NexJectTM Single-dose products: Discard unused portion.
Multiple-dose vials: Discard unused portion after 28 days.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F), excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). [See USP controlled room temperature.]
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