Prescription Drug Information: Desflurane

DESFLURANE- desflurane liquid
Sandoz Inc.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Induction of Anesthesia

Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is indicated as an inhalation agent for induction of anesthesia for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.

Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is contraindicated as an inhalation agent for the induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients because of a high incidence of moderate to severe upper airway adverse events.

1.2 Maintenance of Anesthesia

Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is indicated as an inhalation agent for maintenance of anesthesia for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults and in pediatric patients.

After induction of anesthesia with agents other than Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation, and tracheal intubation, Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is indicated for maintenance of anesthesia in infants and children. Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is not approved for maintenance of anesthesia in non-intubated children due to an increased incidence of respiratory adverse reactions, including coughing, laryngospasm, and secretions [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Clinical Studies (14.5)] .

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Only persons trained in the administration of general anesthesia should administer Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation. Only a vaporizer specifically designed and designated for use with desflurane should be utilized for its administration. Facilities for maintenance of a patent airway, artificial ventilation, oxygen enrichment, and circulatory resuscitation must be immediately available.

Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is administered by inhalation. The administration of general anesthesia must be individualized based on the patient’s response. Hypotension and respiratory depression increase as anesthesia with Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is deepened. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation decreases with increasing patient age. The MAC for Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is also reduced by concomitant N 2 O administration (See Table 1) . The dose should be adjusted accordingly. The following table provides mean relative potency based upon age and effect of N 2 O in predominately ASA physical status I or II patients.

Benzodiazepines and opioids decrease the MAC of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation [See Drug Interactions (7.1, Table 3)] . Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation also decreases the doses of neuromuscular blocking agents required [See Drug Interactions (7.2, Table 4)] . The dose should be adjusted accordingly.

Table 1

Effect of Age on Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Desflurane Mean ± SD (percent atmospheres)

Age

N

O 2 100%

N

N 2 O 60%/40% O 2

2 weeks

6

9.2 ± 0

10 weeks

5

9.4 ± 0.4

9 months

4

10 ± 0.7

5

7.5 ± 0.8

2 years

3

9.1 ± 0.6

3 years

5

6.4 ± 0.4

4 years

4

8.6 ± 0.6

7 years

5

8.1 ± 0.6

25 years

4

7.3 ± 0

4

4 ± 0.3

45 years

4

6 ± 0.3

6

2.8 ± 0.6

70 years

6

5.2 ± 0.6

6

1.7 ± 0.4

N = number of crossover pairs (using up-and-down method of quantal response)

2.1 Preanesthetic Medication

Issues such as whether or not to premedicate and the choice of premedication(s) must be individualized. In clinical studies, patients scheduled to be anesthetized with Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation frequently received IV preanesthetic medication, such as opioid and/or benzodiazepine.

2.2 Induction

In adults, some premedicated with opioid, a frequent starting concentration was 3% Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation, increased in 0.5% to 1% increments every 2 to 3 breaths. End-tidal concentrations of 4% to 11%, Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation with and without N 2 O, produced anesthesia within 2 minutes to 4 minutes. When Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation was tested as the primary anesthetic induction agent, the incidence of upper airway irritation (apnea, breathholding, laryngospasm, coughing and secretions) was high. During induction in adults, the overall incidence of oxyhemoglobin desaturation (SpO 2 < 90%) was 6% [ See Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

After induction in adults with an intravenous drug such as thiopental or propofol, Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation can be started at approximately 0.5 to 1 MAC, whether the carrier gas is O 2 or N 2 O/O 2 .

Inspired concentrations of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation greater than 12% have been safely administered to patients, particularly during induction of anesthesia. Such concentrations will proportionately dilute the concentration of oxygen; therefore, maintenance of an adequate concentration of oxygen may require a reduction of nitrous oxide or air if these gases are used concurrently.

2.3 Maintenance

Surgical levels of anesthesia in adults may be maintained with concentrations of 2.5% to 8.5% Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation with or without the concomitant use of nitrous oxide. In children, surgical levels of anesthesia may be maintained with concentrations of 5.2% to 10% Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation with or without the concomitant use of nitrous oxide.

During the maintenance of anesthesia with inflow rates of 2 L/min or more, the alveolar concentration of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation will usually be within 10% of the inspired concentration [F A /F I , see Figure 2 in Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

During the maintenance of anesthesia, increasing concentrations of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation produce dose-dependent decreases in blood pressure. Excessive decreases in blood pressure may be due to depth of anesthesia and in such instances may be corrected by decreasing the inspired concentration of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation.

Concentrations of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation exceeding 1 MAC may increase heart rate. Thus with this drug, an increased heart rate may not serve reliably as a sign of inadequate anesthesia.

2.4 Maintenance of Anesthesia in Intubated Pediatric Patients

Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation is indicated for maintenance of anesthesia in infants and children after induction of anesthesia with agents other thanDesflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation, and tracheal intubation.

Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation, with or without N 2 O, and halothane, with or without N 2 O were studied in three clinical trials of pediatric patients aged 2 weeks to 12 years (median 2 years) and ASA physical status I or II. The concentration of Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation required for maintenance of general anesthesia is age-dependent [See Clinical Studies (14.5)] .

Changes in blood pressure during maintenance of and recovery from anesthesia with Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation/N 2 O/O 2 are similar to those observed with halothane/N 2 O/O 2 . Heart rate during maintenance of anesthesia is approximately 10 beats per minute faster with desflurane than with halothane. Patients were judged fit for discharge from post-anesthesia care units within one hour with both Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation and halothane. There were no differences in the incidence of nausea and vomiting between patients receiving Desflurane, USP, Liquid for Inhalation or halothane.

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