Prescription Drug Information: Diltiazem Hydrochloride

DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE- diltiazem hydrochloride injection, solution
DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE- diltiazem hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
Hospira, Inc.

Single-Dose Fliptop Vial

Diltiazem Hydrochloride for Injection
Single-Dose ADD-Vantage® Vial
For Continuous Intravenous Infusion
Not For Bolus

RX Only

DESCRIPTION

Diltiazem hydrochloride is a calcium ion cellular influx inhibitor (slow channel blocker or calcium channel antagonist). Chemically, diltiazem hydrochloride is 1,5-benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one, 3-(acetyloxy)-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2, 3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, monohydrochloride,(+)-cis-. The chemical structure is:

Chemical Structure

Diltiazem hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, methanol, and chloroform. It has a molecular weight of 450.98.

Diltiazem hydrochloride injection is a clear, colorless, sterile, nonpyrogenic solution. It has a pH range of 3.7 to 4.1.

Diltiazem hydrochloride injection is for direct intravenous bolus injection and continuous intravenous infusion.

25-mg, 5-mL vial-each sterile vial contains 25 mg diltiazem hydrochloride, 3.75 mg citric acid USP, 3.25 mg sodium citrate dihydrate USP, 250 mg sorbitol NF and water for injection USP up to 5 mL. Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid is used for pH adjustment.

50-mg, 10-mL vial-each sterile vial contains 50 mg diltiazem hydrochloride, 7.5 mg citric acid USP, 6.5 mg sodium citrate dihydrate USP, 500 mg sorbitol NF and water for injection USP up to 10 mL. Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid is used for pH adjustment.

Diltiazem hydrochloride for injection is an off-white lyophilized powder and, after reconstitution in an infusion bag, produces a clear, colorless, sterile, nonpyrogenic solution.

Diltiazem hydrochloride for injection for continuous intravenous infusion is available in ADD-Vantage Vials. The vial contains lyophilized powder comprised of diltiazem hydrochloride 100 mg and mannitol USP 75 mg for reconstitution in the ADD-Vantage Flexible Diluent Container containing 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanisms of Action

Diltiazem inhibits the influx of calcium (Ca2+) ions during membrane depolarization of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. The therapeutic benefits of diltiazem in supraventricular tachycardias are related to its ability to slow AV nodal conduction time and prolong AV nodal refractoriness. Diltiazem exhibits frequency (use) dependent effects on AV nodal conduction such that it may selectively reduce the heart rate during tachycardias involving the AV node with little or no effect on normal AV nodal conduction at normal heart rates.

Diltiazem slows the ventricular rate in patients with a rapid ventricular response during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Diltiazem converts paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) to normal sinus rhythm by interrupting the reentry circuit in AV nodal reentrant tachycardias and reciprocating tachycardias, e.g., Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW).

Diltiazem prolongs the sinus cycle length. It has no effect on the sinus node recovery time or on the sinoatrial conduction time in patients without SA nodal dysfunction. Diltiazem has no significant electrophysiologic effects on tissues in the heart that are fast sodium channel dependent, e.g., His-Purkinje tissue, atrial and ventricular muscle, and extranodal accessory pathways.

Like other calcium channel antagonists, because of its effect on vascular smooth muscle, diltiazem decreases total peripheral resistance resulting in a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Hemodynamics

In patients with cardiovascular disease, diltiazem hydrochloride injection administered intravenously in single bolus doses, followed in some cases by a continuous infusion, reduced blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, the rate-pressure product, and coronary vascular resistance and increased coronary blood flow. In a limited number of studies of patients with compromised myocardium (severe congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), administration of intravenous diltiazem produced no significant effect on contractility, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. The mean ejection fraction and cardiac output/index remained unchanged or increased. Maximal hemodynamic effects usually occurred within 2 to 5 minutes of an injection. However, in rare instances, worsening of congestive heart failure has been reported in patients with preexisting impaired ventricular function.

Pharmacodynamics

The prolongation of PR interval correlated significantly with plasma diltiazem concentration in normal volunteers using the Sigmoidal Emax model. Changes in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure did not correlate with diltiazem plasma concentrations in normal volunteers. Reduction in mean arterial pressure correlated linearly with diltiazem plasma concentration in a group of hypertensive patients.

In patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, a significant correlation was observed between the percent reduction in HR and plasma diltiazem concentration using the Sigmoidal Emax model. Based on this relationship, the mean plasma diltiazem concentration required to produce a 20% decrease in heart rate was determined to be 80 ng/mL. Mean plasma diltiazem concentrations of 130 ng/mL and 300 ng/mL were determined to produce reductions in heart rate of 30% and 40%.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

Following a single intravenous injection in healthy male volunteers, diltiazem hydrochloride appears to obey linear pharmacokinetics over a dose range of 10.5 to 21 mg. The plasma elimination half-life is approximately 3.4 hours. The apparent volume of distribution of diltiazem hydrochloride is approximately 305 L. Diltiazem hydrochloride is extensively metabolized in the liver with a systemic clearance of approximately 65 L/h.

After constant rate intravenous infusion to healthy male volunteers, diltiazem exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics over an infusion range of 4.8 to 13.2 mg/h for 24 hours. Over this infusion range, as the dose is increased, systemic clearance decreases from 64 to 48 L/h while the plasma elimination half-life increases from 4.1 to 4.9 hours. The apparent volume of distribution remains unchanged (360 to 391 L). In patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, diltiazem systemic clearance has been found to be decreased compared to healthy volunteers. In patients administered bolus doses ranging from 2.5 mg to 38.5 mg, systemic clearance averaged 36 L/h. In patients administered continuous infusions at 10 mg/h or 15 mg/h for 24 hours, diltiazem systemic clearance averaged 42 L/h and 31 L/h, respectively.

Based on the results of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers administered different oral diltiazem hydrochloride formulations, constant rate intravenous infusions of diltiazem hydrochloride at 3, 5, 7, and 11 mg/h are predicted to produce steady-state plasma diltiazem concentrations equivalent to 120-, 180-, 240-, and 360-mg total daily oral doses of diltiazem hydrochloride tablets or diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules.

After oral administration, diltiazem undergoes extensive metabolism in man by deacetylation, N-demethylation, and O-demethylation via cytochrome P-450 (oxidative metabolism) in addition to conjugation. Metabolites N-monodesmethyldiltiazem, desacetyldiltiazem, desacetyl-N-monodesmethyldiltiazem, desacetyl-O-desmethyldiltiazem, and desacetyl-N, O-desmethyldiltiazem have been identified in human urine. Following oral administration, 2% to 4% of the unchanged diltiazem appears in the urine. Drugs which induce or inhibit hepatic microsomal enzymes may alter diltiazem disposition.

Following single intravenous injection of diltiazem hydrochloride, however, plasma concentrations of N-monodesmethyldiltiazem and desacetyldiltiazem, two principal metabolites found in plasma after oral administration, are typically not detected. These metabolites are observed, however, following 24 hour constant rate intravenous infusion. Total radioactivity measurement following short IV administration in healthy volunteers suggests the presence of other unidentified metabolites which attain higher concentrations than those of diltiazem and are more slowly eliminated; half-life of total radioactivity is about 20 hours compared to 2 to 5 hours for diltiazem.

Diltiazem hydrochloride is 70% to 80% bound to plasma proteins. In vitro studies suggest alpha1 –acid glycoprotein binds approximately 40% of the drug at clinically significant concentrations. Albumin appears to bind approximately 30% of the drug, while other constituents bind the remaining bound fraction. Competitive in vitro ligand binding studies have shown that diltiazem binding is not altered by therapeutic concentrations of digoxin, phenytoin, hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, propranolol, salicylic acid, tolbutamide, or warfarin.

Renal insufficiency, or even end-stage renal disease, does not appear to influence diltiazem disposition following oral administration. Liver cirrhosis was shown to reduce diltiazem’s apparent oral clearance and prolong its half-life.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Diltiazem Hydrochloride Injection or Diltiazem Hydrochloride for Injection are indicated for the following:

Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter

Temporary control of rapid ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. It should not be used in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter associated with an accessory bypass tract such as in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome or short PR syndrome.

In addition, Diltiazem Hydrochloride Injection is indicated for:

Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia

Rapid conversion of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT) to sinus rhythm. This includes AV nodal reentrant tachycardias and reciprocating tachycardias associated with an extranodal accessory pathway such as the WPW syndrome or short PR syndrome. Unless otherwise contraindicated, appropriate vagal maneuvers should be attempted prior to administration of diltiazem hydrochloride injection.

The use of diltiazem hydrochloride injection or diltiazem hydrochloride for injection should be undertaken with caution when the patient is compromised hemodynamically or is taking other drugs that decrease any or all of the following: peripheral resistance, myocardial filling, myocardial contractility, or electrical impulse propagation in the myocardium.

For either indication and particularly when employing continuous intravenous infusion, the setting should include continuous monitoring of the ECG and frequent measurement of blood pressure. A defibrillator and emergency equipment should be readily available.

In domestic controlled trials in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, bolus administration of diltiazem hydrochloride injection was effective in reducing heart rate by at least 20% in 95% of patients. Diltiazem hydrochloride injection rarely converts atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter to normal sinus rhythm. Following administration of one or two intravenous bolus doses of diltiazem hydrochloride injection, response usually occurs within 3 minutes and maximal heart rate reduction generally occurs in 2 to 7 minutes. Heart rate reduction may last from 1 to 3 hours. If hypotension occurs, it is generally short-lived, but may last from 1 to 3 hours.

A 24-hour continuous infusion of diltiazem hydrochloride injection in the treatment of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter maintained at least a 20% heart rate reduction during the infusion in 83% of patients. Upon discontinuation of infusion, heart rate reduction may last from 0.5 hours to more than 10 hours (median duration 7 hours). Hypotension, if it occurs, may be similarly persistent.

In the controlled clinical trials, 3.2% of patients required some form of intervention (typically, use of intravenous fluids or the Trendelenburg position) for blood pressure support following diltiazem hydrochloride injection.

In domestic controlled trials, bolus administration of diltiazem hydrochloride injection was effective in converting PSVT to normal sinus rhythm in 88% of patients within 3 minutes of the first or second bolus dose.

Symptoms associated with the arrhythmia were improved in conjunction with decreased heart rate or conversion to normal sinus rhythm following administration of diltiazem hydrochloride injection.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Injectable forms of diltiazem are contraindicated in:

  1. Patients with sick sinus syndrome except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker.
  2. Patients with second- or third-degree AV block except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker.
  3. Patients with severe hypotension or cardiogenic shock.
  4. Patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug.
  5. Intravenous diltiazem and intravenous beta-blockers should not be administered together or in close proximity (within a few hours).
  6. Patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter associated with an accessory bypass tract such as in WPW syndrome or short PR syndrome.As with other agents which slow AV nodal conduction and do not prolong the refractoriness of the accessory pathway (e.g., verapamil, digoxin), in rare instances patients in atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter associated with an accessory bypass tract may experience a potentially life-threatening increase in heart rate accompanied by hypotension when treated with injectable forms of diltiazem. As such, the initial use of injectable forms of diltiazem should be, if possible, in a setting where monitoring and resuscitation capabilities, including DC cardioversion/defibrillation, are present (see OVERDOSAGE). Once familiarity of the patient’s response is established, use in an office setting may be acceptable.
  7. Patients with ventricular tachycardia. Administration of other calcium channel blockers to patients with wide complex tachycardia (QRS ≥ 0.12 seconds) has resulted in hemodynamic deterioration and ventricular fibrillation. It is important that an accurate pretreatment diagnosis distinguish wide complex QRS tachycardia of supraventricular origin from that of ventricular origin prior to administration of injectable forms of diltiazem.

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