Prescription Drug Information: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (Page 5 of 8)

12.4 Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Emtricitabine: FTC, a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytidine, is phosphorylated by cellular enzymes to form emtricitabine 5′-triphosphate (FTC-TP), which inhibits the activity of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by competing with the natural substrate deoxycytidine 5′-triphosphate and by being incorporated into nascent viral DNA which results in chain termination. FTC-TP is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases α, β, ε and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: TDF is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate diester analog of adenosine monophosphate. TDF requires initial diester hydrolysis for conversion to tenofovir and subsequent phosphorylations by cellular enzymes to form tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP), which inhibits the activity of HIV-1 RT by competing with the natural substrate deoxyadenosine 5′-triphosphate and, after incorporation into DNA, by DNA chain termination. TFV-DP is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases α, β, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.

Antiviral Activity

Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: No antagonism was observed in combination studies evaluating the cell culture antiviral activity of FTC and tenofovir together.

Emtricitabine: The antiviral activity of FTC against laboratory and clinical isolates of HIV-1 was assessed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, the MAGI-CCR5 cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for FTC were in the range of 0.0013–0.64 µM (0.0003–0.158 µg/mL). In drug combination studies of FTC with nucleoside RT inhibitors (abacavir, lamivudine, stavudine, zidovudine), non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (delavirdine, efavirenz, nevirapine), and protease inhibitors (amprenavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir), no antagonism was observed. Emtricitabine displayed antiviral activity in cell culture against HIV-1 clades A, B, C, D, E, F, and G (EC50 values ranged from 0.007–0.075 µM) and showed strain-specific activity against HIV-2 (EC50 values ranged from 0.007–1.5 µM).

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: The antiviral activity of tenofovir against laboratory and clinical isolates of HIV-1 was assessed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, primary monocyte/macrophage cells, and peripheral blood lymphocytes. The EC50 values for tenofovir were in the range of 0.04–8.5 µM. In drug combination studies of tenofovir with nucleoside RT inhibitors (abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, zidovudine), non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (delavirdine, efavirenz, nevirapine), and protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir), no antagonism was observed. Tenofovir displayed antiviral activity in cell culture against HIV-1 clades A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and O (EC50 values ranged from 0.5–2.2 µM) and showed strain-specific activity against HIV-2 (EC50 values ranged from 1.6 µM to 5.5 µM).

Prophylactic Activity in a Nonhuman Primate Model of HIV-1 Transmission

Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: The prophylactic activity of the combination of daily oral FTC and TDF was evaluated in a controlled study of macaques inoculated once weekly for 14 weeks with SIV/HIV-1 chimeric virus (SHIV) applied to the rectal surface. Of the 18 control animals, 17 became infected after a median of 2 weeks. In contrast, 4 of the 6 animals treated daily with oral FTC and TDF remained uninfected and the two infections that did occur were significantly delayed until 9 and 12 weeks and exhibited reduced viremia. An M184I-expressing FTC-resistant variant emerged in 1 of the 2 macaques after 3 weeks of continued drug exposure.

Resistance

Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: HIV-1 isolates with reduced susceptibility to the combination of FTC and tenofovir have been selected in cell culture. Genotypic analysis of these isolates identified the M184V/I and/or K65R amino acid substitutions in the viral RT. In addition, a K70E substitution in the HIV-1 RT has been selected by tenofovir and results in reduced susceptibility to tenofovir.

In Study 934, a clinical trial of treatment-naïve subjects [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] , resistance analysis was performed on HIV-1 isolates from all confirmed virologic failure subjects with greater than 400 copies/mL of HIV-1 RNA at Week 144 or early discontinuation. Development of efavirenz resistance- associated substitutions occurred most frequently and was similar between the treatment arms. The M184V amino acid substitution, associated with resistance to FTC and lamivudine, was observed in 2/19 analyzed subject isolates in the FTC+TDF group and in 10/29 analyzed subject isolates in the zidovudine/lamivudine group. Through 144 weeks of Study 934, no subjects have developed a detectable K65R or K70E substitution in their HIV-1 as analyzed through standard genotypic analysis.

Emtricitabine: FTC-resistant isolates of HIV-1 have been selected in cell culture and in vivo. Genotypic analysis of these isolates showed that the reduced susceptibility to FTC was associated with a substitution in the HIV-1 RT gene at codon 184 which resulted in an amino acid substitution of methionine by valine or isoleucine (M184V/I).

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: HIV-1 isolates with reduced susceptibility to tenofovir have been selected in cell culture. These viruses expressed a K65R substitution in RT and showed a 2- to 4-fold reduction in susceptibility to tenofovir.

In treatment-naïve subjects, isolates from 8/47 (17%) analyzed subjects developed the K65R substitution in the TDF arm through 144 weeks; 7 occurred in the first 48 weeks of treatment and 1 at Week 96. In treatment-experienced subjects, 14/304 (5%) isolates from subjects failing TDF through Week 96 showed greater than 1.4-fold (median 2.7) reduced susceptibility to tenofovir. Genotypic analysis of the resistant isolates showed a K65R amino acid substitution in the HIV-1 RT.

iPrEx Trial: In the iPrEx trial, a clinical trial of HIV-1 seronegative adult subjects [see Clinical Studies (14.3)] , no amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to FTC or TDF were detected at the time of seroconversion among 48 subjects in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets group and 83 subjects in the placebo group who became infected with HIV-1 during the trial. Ten subjects were observed to be HIV-1 infected at time of enrollment. The M184V/I substitutions associated with resistance to FTC were observed in 3 of the 10 subjects (2 of 2 in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets group and 1 of 8 in the placebo group). One of the two subjects in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets group harbored wild type virus at enrollment and developed the M184V substitution 4 weeks after enrollment. The other subject had indeterminate resistance at enrollment but was found to have the M184I substitution 4 weeks after enrollment.

Partners PrEP Trial: In the Partners PrEP trial, a clinical trial of HIV-1 seronegative adult subjects [see Clinical Studies (14.4)], no variants expressing amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to FTC or TDF were detected at the time of seroconversion among 12 subjects in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets group, 15 subjects in the TDF group, and 51 subjects in the placebo group. Fourteen subjects were observed to be HIV-1 infected at the time of enrollment (3 in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets group, 5 in the TDF group, and 6 in the placebo group). One of the three subjects in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets group who was infected with wild type virus at enrollment selected an M184V expressing virus by Week 12. Two of the five subjects in the TDF group had tenofovir-resistant viruses at the time of seroconversion; one subject infected with wild type virus at enrollment developed a K65R substitution by Week 16, while the second subject had virus expressing the combination of D67N and K70R substitutions upon seroconversion at Week 60, although baseline virus was not genotyped and it is unclear if the resistance emerged or was transmitted. Following enrollment, 4 subjects (2 in the TDF group, 1 in the Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets group, and 1 in the placebo group) had virus expressing K103N or V106A substitutions, which confer high-level resistance to NNRTIs but have not been associated with FTC or TDF and may have been present in the infecting virus.

ATN113 Trial: In ATN113, a clinical trial of HIV-1 seronegative adolescent subjects [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)], no amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to FTC or TDF were detected at the time of seroconversion from any of the 3 subjects who became infected with HIV-1 during the trial. All 3 subjects who seroconverted were nonadherent to the recommended Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets dosage.

Cross Resistance

Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Cross-resistance among certain NRTIs has been recognized. The M184V/I and/or K65R substitutions selected in cell culture by the combination of FTC and tenofovir are also observed in some HIV-1 isolates from subjects failing treatment with tenofovir in combination with either FTC or lamivudine, and either abacavir or didanosine. Therefore, cross- resistance among these drugs may occur in patients whose virus harbors either or both of these amino acid substitutions.

Emtricitabine: FTC-resistant isolates (M184V/I) were cross-resistant to lamivudine but retained susceptibility in cell culture to the NRTIs didanosine, stavudine, tenofovir, and zidovudine, and to NNRTIs (delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine). HIV-1 isolates containing the K65R substitution, selected in vivo by abacavir, didanosine, and tenofovir, demonstrated reduced susceptibility to inhibition by FTC. Viruses harboring substitutions conferring reduced susceptibility to stavudine and zidovudine (M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, K219Q/E), or didanosine (L74V) remained sensitive to FTC. HIV-1 containing the K103N substitution associated with resistance to NNRTIs was susceptible to FTC.

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: The K65R and K70E substitutions selected by tenofovir are also selected in some HIV-1 infected patients treated with abacavir or didanosine. HIV-1 isolates with the K65R and K70E substitutions also showed reduced susceptibility to FTC and lamivudine. Therefore, cross-resistance among these NRTIs may occur in patients whose virus harbors the K65R or K70E substitutions. HIV-1 isolates from subjects (N=20) whose HIV-1 expressed a mean of 3 zidovudine- associated RT amino acid substitutions (M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, or K219Q/E/N) showed a 3.1-fold decrease in the susceptibility to tenofovir. Subjects whose virus expressed an L74V substitution without zidovudine resistance-associated substitutions (N=8) had reduced response to TDF. Limited data are available for patients whose virus expressed a Y115F substitution (N=3), Q151M substitution (N=2), or T69 insertion (N=4), all of whom had a reduced response.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Emtricitabine: In long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of FTC, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice at doses up to 750 mg/kg/day (26 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg/day) or in rats at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day (31 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose).

FTC was not genotoxic in the reverse mutation bacterial test (Ames test), or the mouse lymphoma or mouse micronucleus assays.

FTC did not affect fertility in male rats at approximately 140-fold or in male and female mice at approximately 60-fold higher exposures (AUC) than in humans given the recommended 200 mg daily dose. Fertility was normal in the offspring of mice exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 60-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 200 mg daily dose.

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of TDF in mice and rats were carried out at exposures up to approximately 16 times (mice) and 5 times (rats) those observed in humans at the therapeutic dose for HIV-1 infection. At the high dose in female mice, liver adenomas were increased at exposures 16 times that in humans. In rats, the study was negative for carcinogenic findings at exposures up to 5 times that observed in humans at the therapeutic dose.

TDF was mutagenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and negative in an in vitro bacterial mutagenicity test (Ames test). In an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, TDF was negative when administered to male mice.

There were no effects on fertility, mating performance, or early embryonic development when TDF was administered to male rats at a dose equivalent to 10 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons for 28 days prior to mating and to female rats for 15 days prior to mating through day 7 of gestation. There was, however, an alteration of the estrous cycle in female rats.

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