Prescription Drug Information: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate

EMTRICITABINE AND TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE — emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablet, film coated
Laurus Labs Limited

WARNING: POSTTREATMENT ACUTE EXACERBATION OF HEPATITIS B and RISK OF DRUG RESISTANCE WITH USE OF EMTRICITABINE AND TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE TABLETS FOR HIV-1 PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS (PrEP) IN UNDIAGNOSED EARLY HIV-1 INFECTION

Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B (HBV) have been reported in HBV-infected individuals who have discontinued emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in individuals who are infected with HBV and discontinue emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. If appropriate, anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate used for HIV-1 PrEP must only be prescribed to individuals confirmed to be HIV-negative immediately prior to initiating and at least every 3 months during use. Drug-resistant HIV-1 variants have been identified with use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP following undetected acute HIV-1 infection. Do not initiate emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP if signs or symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection are present unless negative infection status is confirmed [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets are indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients weighing at least 17 kg [see Clinical Studies (14)].

1.2 HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets are indicated in at-risk adults and adolescents weighing at least 35 kg for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection. Individuals must have a negative HIV-1 test immediately prior to initiating emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2 )].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Testing Prior to Initiation of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection or for HIV-1 PrEP

Prior to or when initiating emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, test individuals for hepatitis B virus infection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Prior to initiation, and during use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, on a clinically appropriate schedule, assess serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose, and urine protein in all individuals. In individuals with chronic kidney disease, also assess serum phosphorus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

2.2 HIV-1 Screening for Individuals Receiving Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets for HIV-1 PrEP

Screen all individuals for HIV-1 infection immediately prior to initiating emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets for HIV-1 PrEP and at least once every 3 months while taking emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, and upon diagnosis of any other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) [see Indications and Usage (1.2), Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
If recent (<1 month) exposure to HIV-1 are suspected or clinical symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection are present, use a test approved or cleared by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of acute or primary HIV-1 infection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.4), and Clinical Studies (14.3 and 14.4)].

2.3 Recommended Dosage for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in Adults and Pediatric Patients Weighing at Least 35 kg

Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets are a two-drug fixed dose combination product containing emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The recommended dosage of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets in adults and in pediatric patients weighing at least 35 kg is one tablet (containing 200 mg of FTC and 300 mg of TDF) once daily taken orally with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.4 Recommended Dosage for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in Pediatric Patients Weighing at Least 17 kg and Able to Swallow a Tablet

The recommended oral dosage of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets for pediatric patients weighing at least 17 kg and who can swallow a tablet is presented in Table 1. Tablets should be taken once daily with or without food. Weight should be monitored periodically and the emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets dose adjusted accordingly.

Table 1 Dosing for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in Pediatric Patients Weighing 17 kg to less than 35 kg
Body Weight (kg) Dosing of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets (FTC/TDF)
17 to less than 22 one 100 mg /150 mg tablet once daily
22 to less than 28 one 133 mg /200 mg tablet once daily
28 to less than 35 one 167 mg /250 mg tablet once daily

2.5 Recommended Dosage for HIV-1 PrEP in Adults and Adolescents Weighing at Least 35 kg

The dosage of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets for HIV-1 PrEP is one tablet (containing 200 mg of FTC and 300 mg of TDF) once daily taken orally with or without food in HIV-1 uninfected adults and adolescents weighing at least 35 kg [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.6 Dosage Adjustment in Individuals with Renal Impairment

Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

Table 2 provides dosage interval adjustment for patients with renal impairment. No dosage adjustment is necessary for HIV-1 infected patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance 50 to 80 mL/min). The safety and effectiveness of the dosing interval adjustment recommendations in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 49 mL/min) have not been clinically evaluated; therefore, clinical response to treatment and renal function should be closely monitored in these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

No data are available to make dosage recommendations in pediatric patients with renal impairment.

Table 2 Dosage Interval Adjustment for HIV-1 Infected Adult Patients with Altered Creatinine Clearance
Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)a
≥50 30 to 49 <30 (Including Patients Requiring Hemodialysis)
Recommended Dosing Interval Every 24 hours Every 48 hours Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is not recommended.

a. Calculated using ideal (lean) body weight

HIV-1 PrEP

Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets for HIV-1 PrEP is not recommended in HIV-1 uninfected individuals with estimated creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

If a decrease in estimated creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets for HIV-1 PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets are available in one dose strength:

  • 200 mg/300 mg Tablets: 200 mg of FTC and 300 mg of TDF (equivalent to 245 mg of tenofovir disoproxil): white to off white, capsule shaped, film-coated biconvex tablets, debossed with ‘LA49’ on one side and plain on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP is contraindicated in individuals with unknown or positive HIV-1 status [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Severe Acute Exacerbation of Hepatitis B in Individuals with HBV Infection

All individuals should be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) before or when initiating emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B (e.g., liver decompensation and liver failure) have been reported in HBV-infected individuals who have discontinued emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Individuals infected with HBV who discontinue emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment. If appropriate, anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted, especially in individuals with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, since posttreatment exacerbation of hepatitis may lead to hepatic decompensation and liver failure. HBV-uninfected individuals should be offered vaccination.

5.2 Comprehensive Management to Reduce the Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV-1, and Development of HIV-1 Resistance When Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Is Used for HIV-1 PrEP

Use emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP to reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection as part of a comprehensive prevention strategy that includes other prevention measures, including adherence to daily administration and safer sex practices, including condoms, to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The time from initiation of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP to maximal protection against HIV-1 infection is unknown.
Risk for HIV-1 acquisition includes behavioral, biological, or epidemiologic factors including but not limited to condomless sex, past or current STIs, self-identified HIV risk, having sexual partners of unknown HIV-1 viremic status, or sexual activity in a high prevalence area or network.
Counsel individuals on the use of other prevention measures (e.g., consistent and correct condom use, knowledge of partner(s)’ HIV-1 status, including viral suppression status, regular testing for STIs that can facilitate HIV-1 transmission). Inform uninfected individuals about and support their efforts in reducing sexual risk behavior.
Use emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1 only in individuals confirmed to be HIV-negative. HIV-1 resistance substitutions may emerge in individuals with undetected HIV-1 infection who are taking only emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, because emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate alone does not constitute a complete regimen for HIV-1 treatment [see Microbiology (12.4)]; therefore, care should be taken to minimize the risk of initiating or continuing emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets before confirming the individual is HIV-1 negative.

  • Some HIV-1 tests only detect anti-HIV antibodies and may not identify HIV-1 during the acute stage of infection. Prior to initiating emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP, ask seronegative individuals about recent (in past month) potential exposure events (e.g., condomless sex or condom breaking during sex with a partner of unknown HIV-1 status or unknown viremic status, or a recent STI), and evaluate for current or recent signs or symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection (e.g., fever, fatigue, myalgia, skin rash).

  • If recent (<1 month) exposures to HIV-1 are suspected or clinical symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection are present, use a test approved or cleared by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of acute or primary HIV-1 infection.

While using emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP, HIV-1 testing should be repeated at least every 3 months, and upon diagnosis of any other STIs.

  • If an HIV-1 test indicates possible HIV-1 infection, or if symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection develop following a potential exposure event, convert the HIV-1 PrEP regimen to an HIV treatment regimen until negative infection status is confirmed using a test approved or cleared by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of acute or primary HIV-1 infection.

Counsel HIV-1 uninfected individuals to strictly adhere to the once daily emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate dosing schedule. The effectiveness of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in reducing the risk of acquiring HIV-1 is strongly correlated with adherence, as demonstrated by measurable drug levels in clinical trials of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP. Some individuals, such as adolescents, may benefit from more frequent visits and counseling to support adherence [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Microbiology (12.4), and Clinical Studies (14.3 and 14.4)].

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