Esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules contain a bioequivalent enteric-coated granule formulation of esomeprazole magnesium. Bioequivalency is based on a single dose (40 mg) study in 94 healthy male and female volunteers under fasting condition. After oral administration, peak plasma levels (C max ) occur at approximately 1.5 hours (T max ). The C max increases proportionally when the dose is increased, and there is a three-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 20 to 40 mg. At repeated once-daily dosing with 40 mg, the systemic bioavailability is approximately 90% compared to 64% after a single dose of 40 mg. The mean exposure (AUC) to esomeprazole increases from 4.32 µmol*hr/L on Day 1 to 11.2 µmol*hr/L on Day 5 after 40 mg once daily dosing.
The AUC after administration of a single 40 mg dose of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules is decreased by 43% to 53% after food intake compared to fasting conditions. Esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules should be taken at least one hour before meals. The pharmacokinetic profile of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules was determined in 36 patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease following repeated once daily administration of 20 mg and 40 mg capsules of esomeprazole magnesium over a period of five days. The results are shown in the Table 4:
|Parameter 1 (CV)||Esomeprazole Magnesium Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg||Esomeprazole Magnesium Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg|
|AUC (µmol . h/L)||12.6 (42%)||4.2 (59%)|
|C max (µmol/L)||4.7 (37%)||2.1 (45%)|
|T max (h)||1.6||1.6|
|t 1/2 (h)||1.5||1.2|
1. Values represent the geometric mean, except the T max , which is the arithmetic mean; CV = Coefficient of variation
Esomeprazole is 97% bound to plasma proteins. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range of 2 to 20 µmol/L. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state in healthy volunteers is approximately 16 L.
Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. The metabolites of esomeprazole lack antisecretory activity. The major part of esomeprazole’s metabolism is dependent upon the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, which forms the hydroxy and desmethyl metabolites. The remaining amount is dependent on CYP3A4 which forms the sulphone metabolite. CYP2C19 isoenzyme exhibits polymorphism in the metabolism of esomeprazole, since some 3% of Caucasians and 15 to 20% of Asians lack CYP2C19 and are termed Poor Metabolizers. At steady state, the ratio of AUC in Poor Metabolizers to AUC in the rest of the population (Extensive Metabolizers) is approximately 2.
Following administration of equimolar doses, the S- and R-isomers are metabolized differently by the liver, resulting in higher plasma levels of the S- than of the R-isomer.
The plasma elimination half-life of esomeprazole is approximately 1 to 1.5 hours. Less than 1% of parent drug is excreted in the urine. Approximately 80% of an oral dose of esomeprazole is excreted as inactive metabolites in the urine, and the remainder is found as inactive metabolites in the feces.
Combination Therapy with Antimicrobials
Esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg once daily was given in combination with clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily for 7 days to 17 healthy male and female subjects. The mean steady state AUC and C max of esomeprazole increased by 70% and 18%, respectively during triple combination therapy compared to treatment with esomeprazole alone. The observed increase in esomeprazole exposure during co-administration with clarithromycin and amoxicillin is not expected to produce significant safety concerns.
The pharmacokinetic parameters for clarithromycin and amoxicillin were similar during triple combination therapy and administration of each drug alone. However, the mean AUC and C max for 14-hydroxyclarithromycin increased by 19% and 22%, respectively, during triple combination therapy compared to treatment with clarithromycin alone. This increase in exposure to 14-hydroxyclarithromycin is not considered to be clinically significant.
Concomitant Use with Clopidogrel
Results from a crossover study in healthy subjects have shown a pharmacokinetic interaction between clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose/75 mg daily maintenance dose) and esomeprazole (40 mg p.o. once daily) when co-administered for 30 days. Exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was reduced by 35% to 40% over this time period. Pharmacodynamic parameters were also measured and demonstrated that the change in inhibition of platelet aggregation was related to the change in the exposure to clopidogrel active metabolite.
Concomitant Use with Mycophenolate Mofetil
Administration of omeprazole 20 mg twice daily for 4 days and a single 1000 mg dose of MMF approximately one hour after the last dose of omeprazole to 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over study resulted in a 52% reduction in the C max and 23% reduction in the AUC of MPA.
Age: Geriatric Population
The AUC and C max values were slightly higher (25% and 18%, respectively) in the elderly as compared to younger subjects at steady state. Dosage adjustment based on age is not necessary.
Age: Pediatric Population
1 to 11 Years of Age
The pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged 1 to 11 years. Following once daily dosing for 5 days, the total exposure (AUC) for the 10 mg dose in patients aged 6 to 11 years was similar to that seen with the 20 mg dose in adults and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. The total exposure for the 10 mg dose in patients aged 1 to 5 years was approximately 30% higher than the 10 mg dose in patients aged 6 to 11 years. The total exposure for the 20 mg dose in patients aged 6 to 11 years was higher than that observed with the 20 mg dose in 12 to 17 year-olds and adults, but lower than that observed with the 40 mg dose in 12 to 17 year-olds and adults. See Table 6.
|Parameter||1 to 5 Year Olds||6 to 11 Year Olds|
|10 mg (N=8)||10 mg (N=7)||20 mg (N=6)|
|AUC (µmol.h/L) 1||4.83||3.7||6.28|
|C max (µmol/L) 1||2.98||1.77||3.73|
|t max (h) 2||1.44||1.79||1.75|
|t ½ λz (h) 1||0.74||0.88||0.73|
|C1/F (L/h) 1||5.99||7.84||9.22|
1. Geometric mean
2. Arithmetic mean
12 to 17 Years of Age
The pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules were studied in 28 adolescent patients with GERD aged 12 to 17 years inclusive, in a single center study. Patients were randomized to receive esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules 20 mg or 40 mg once daily for 8 days. Mean C max and AUC values of esomeprazole were not affected by body weight or age; and more than dose-proportional increases in mean C max and AUC values were observed between the two dose groups in the study. Overall, esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules pharmacokinetics in adolescent patients aged 12 to 17 years were similar to those observed in adult patients with symptomatic GERD. See Table 7.
|12 to 17 Year Olds (N=28)||Adults (N=36)|
|20 mg||40 mg||20 mg||40 mg|
|C max (µmol/L)||1.45||5.13||2.1||4.7|
|t max (h)||2||1.75||1.6||1.6|
|t ½ λz (h)||0.82||1.22||1.2||1.5|
|Data presented are geometric means for AUC, C max and t ½λ z , and median value for t max .|
1. Duration of treatment for 12 to 17 year olds and adults were 8 days and 5 days, respectively. Data were obtained from two independent studies.
The AUC and C max values were slightly higher (13%) in females than in males at steady state. Dosage adjustment based on gender is not necessary.
The steady state pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole obtained after administration of 40 mg once daily to 4 patients each with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B), and severe (Child-Pugh Class C) liver insufficiency were compared to those obtained in 36 male and female GERD patients with normal liver function. In patients with mild and moderate hepatic insufficiency, the AUCs were within the range that could be expected in patients with normal liver function. In patients with severe hepatic insufficiency the AUCs were 2 to 3 times higher than in the patients with normal liver function. No dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Classes A and B). However, in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Class C) a dose of 20 mg once daily should not be exceeded [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
The pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules in patients with renal impairment are not expected to be altered relative to healthy volunteers as less than 1% of esomeprazole is excreted unchanged in urine.
Other Pharmacokinetic Observations
Co-administration of oral contraceptives, diazepam, phenytoin, or quinidine did not seem to change the pharmacokinetic profile of esomeprazole.
Studies evaluating concomitant administration of esomeprazole and either naproxen (non-selective NSAID) or rofecoxib (COX-2 selective NSAID) did not identify any clinically relevant changes in the pharmacokinetic profiles of esomeprazole or these NSAIDs.
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