FIRVANQ- vancomycin hydrochloride
FIRVANQ is indicated for the treatment of C lostridium difficil e-associated diarrhea in adults and pediatric patients less than 18 years of age.
FIRVANQ is also indicated for the treatment of enterocolitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains) in adults and pediatric patients less than 18 years of age.
Important Limitations of Use
- Parenteral administration of vancomycin is not effective for the above infections; therefore, vancomycin must be given orally for these infections.
- Orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride is not effective for treatment of other types of infections.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of FIRVANQ and other antibacterial drugs, FIRVANQ should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Prior to oral administration, the supplied FIRVANQ powder must be reconstituted by the healthcare provider (i.e., a pharmacist) to produce the oral solution [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4) ].
- C. difficile -associated diarrhea: The recommended dose is 125 mg administered orally 4 times daily for 10 days.
- Staphylococcal enterocolitis: Total daily dosage is 500 mg to 2 g administered orally in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days.
For both C. difficile - associated diarrhea and staphylococcal enterocolitis, the usual daily dosage of FIRVANQ is 40 mg/kg in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days. The total daily dosage should not exceed 2 g.
Each FIRVANQ kit contains 1 bottle of vancomycin hydrochloride USP powder and 1 bottle of pre-measured Grape-Flavored Diluent to be added to the vancomycin bottle. A healthcare provider (i.e., a pharmacist) must reconstitute vancomycin hydrochloride USP powder with the Grape-Flavored Diluent provided in the kit. FIRVANQ is available in various strengths and volumes in the kit as shown in Table 1.
|Vancomycin Concentration after Reconstitution||Final Volume of FIRVANQ after Reconstitution||Vancomycin Strength per Bottle||Diluent for FIRVANQ|
|25 mg/mL||150 mL||3.75 g||147 mL|
|300 mL||7.5 g||295 mL|
|50 mg/mL||150 mL||7.5 g||145 mL|
|300 mL||15 g||289 mL|
Steps for the Preparation of S olutions of FIRVANQ
- Hold the neck of the bottle containing the vancomycin hydrochloride USP powder for oral solution (see Table 1), and tap the bottom edges on a hard surface to loosen the powder.
- Remove the cap from the bottle.
- Tap the top of the induction seal liner to loosen any powder which may have adhered to the liner.
- Carefully and slowly peel back the inner foil seal liner from the bottle.
- Shake the Grape-Flavored Diluent (see Table 1) for a few seconds.
- Open the diluent bottle and carefully and slowly peel back the inner foil seal from the diluent bottle.
- Transfer about half the contents of the Grape-Flavored Diluent into the vancomycin hydrochloride, USP powder bottle (“Powder Bottle”).
- Replace the Powder Bottle cap, tighten onto the Powder Bottle, and shake the Powder Bottle vertically for approximately 45 seconds. NOTE: Do NOT use the diluent cap on the Powder Bottle.
- Re-open the Powder Bottle and add the remaining Grape‑Flavored Diluent into the Powder Bottle.
- Replace the Powder Bottle cap, tighten onto the Powder Bottle, and shake the Powder Bottle for approximately 30 seconds. NOTE: Do NOT use the diluent cap on the Powder Bottle as it may cause the solution to leak from the bottle.
- Apply appropriate bar coded dispensing labels onto Powder Bottle and dispense FIRVANQ oral solution to the patient.
- Instruct the patient to shake the reconstituted solution of FIRVANQ well before each use and to use an oral dosing device that measures the appropriate volume of the oral solution in milliliters.
- Instruct the patient to discard the reconstituted solution of FIRVANQ solution after 14 days, or if it appears hazy or contains particulates.
Each FIRVANQ™ kit contains vancomycin hydrochloride USP as white to almost white or tan to brown powder for oral solution, equivalent to 3.75 g, 7.5 g or 15 g vancomycin, and Grape-Flavored Diluent for reconstitution.
FIRVANQ is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to vancomycin.
FIRVANQ must be given orally for treatment of C . difficile -associated diarrhea and staphylococcal enterocolitis. Orally administered vancomycin is not effective for treatment of other types of infections.
Parenteral administration of vancomycin is not effective for treatment of C. difficile -associated diarrhea and staphylococcal enterocolitis. If parenteral vancomycin therapy is desired, use an intravenous preparation of vancomycin and consult the package insert accompanying that preparation.
Significant systemic absorption has been reported in some patients (e.g., patients with renal insufficiency and/or colitis) who have taken multiple oral doses of vancomycin hydrochloride for C. difficile -associated diarrhea. In these patients, serum vancomycin concentrations reached therapeutic levels for the treatment of systemic infections. Some patients with inflammatory disorders of the intestinal mucosa also may have significant systemic absorption of vancomycin. These patients may be at risk for the development of adverse reactions associated with higher doses of FIRVANQ; therefore, monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin may be appropriate in some instances, e.g., in patients with renal insufficiency and/or colitis or in those receiving concomitant therapy with an aminoglycoside antibacterial drug.
Nephrotoxicity (e.g., reports of renal failure, renal impairment, blood creatinine increased) has occurred following oral vancomycin hydrochloride therapy in randomized controlled clinical trials, and can occur either during or after completion of therapy. The risk of nephrotoxicity is increased in patients over 65 years of age [ see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1) and Use i n Specific Populations ( 8.5) ].
In patients over 65 years of age, including those with normal renal function prior to treatment, renal function should be monitored during and following treatment with FIRVANQ to detect potential vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity.
Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given high intravenous doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Serial tests of auditory function may be helpful in order to minimize the risk of ototoxicity [ see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2) ].
Use of FIRVANQ may result in the overgrowth of non-susceptible bacteria. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
Prescribing FIRVANQ in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis, including permanent loss of vision, occurred in patients receiving intracameral or intravitreal administration of vancomycin during or after cataract surgery. The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administered by the intracameral or intravitreal route have not been established by adequate and well-controlled studies. Vancomycin is not indicated for prophylaxis of endophthalmitis.
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data described below reflect exposure to vancomycin hydrochloride in 260 adult subjects in two Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of C. difficile -associated diarrhea. In both trials, subjects received vancomycin hydrochloride 125 mg orally four times daily. The mean duration of treatment was 9.4 days. The median age of patients was 67, ranging between 19 and 96 years of age. Patients were predominantly Caucasian (93%) and 52% were male.
Adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 5% of vancomycin hydrochloride-treated subjects are shown in Table 2. The most common adverse reactions associated with vancomycin hydrochloride (≥ 10%) were nausea, abdominal pain, and hypokalemia.
|System/Organ Class||Adverse Reaction||Vancomycin Hydrochloride ( % ) (N=260)|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||Pyrexia||9|
|Infections and infestations||Urinary tract infection||8|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||Hypokalemia||13|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||Back pain||6|
|Nervous system disorders||Headache||7|
|* Adverse reaction rates were derived from the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events.|
Nephrotoxicity (e.g., reports of renal failure, renal impairment, blood creatinine increased) occurred in 5% of subjects treated with vancomycin hydrochloride. Nephrotoxicity following vancomycin hydrochloride typically first occurred within one week after completion of treatment (median day of onset was Day 16). Nephrotoxicity following vancomycin hydrochloride occurred in 6% of subjects over 65 years of age and 3% of subjects 65 years of age and younger [ see Warnings a nd Precautions ( 5.3) ]. Nephrotoxicity can also occur during oral vancomycin administration.
The incidences of hypokalemia, urinary tract infection, peripheral edema, insomnia, constipation, anemia, depression, vomiting, and hypotension were higher among subjects over 65 years of age than in subjects 65 years of age and younger [ see Use i n Specific Populations ( 8.5) ].
Discontinuation of study drug due to adverse events occurred in 7% of subjects treated with vancomycin hydrochloride. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation of vancomycin hydrochloride were C. difficile colitis (< 1%), nausea (< 1%), and vomiting (< 1%).
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