Prescription Drug Information: Ibuprofen

IBUPROFEN- ibuprofen tablet, film coated
Aphena Pharma Solutions — Tennessee, LLC

BOXED WARNING

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

1.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
1.
IBU tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).

Gastrointestinal Risk

1.
NSAIDS cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinaladverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforationof the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These eventscan occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms.Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinalevents. (See WARNINGS).

DESCRIPTION

IBU tablets contain the active ingredient ibuprofen, which is (±) -2 — (p — isobutylphenyl) propionic acid. Ibuprofen is a white powde rwith a melting point of 74-77° C and is very slightly soluble in water(<1 mg/mL) and readily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone. The structural formula is represented below:

strucuture

IBU, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is availablein 400 mg, 600 mg, and 800 mg tablets for oral administration.Inactive ingredients: carnauba wax, colloidal silicon dioxide,croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystallinecellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate,titanium dioxide.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

IBU tablets contain ibuprofen which possesses analgesic andantipyretic activities. Its mode of action, like that of other NSAIDs, isnot completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin synthetaseinhibition.

In clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis andosteoarthritis, Ibuprofen tablets have been shown to be comparableto aspirin in controlling pain and inflammation and to be associatedwith a statistically significant reduction in the milder gastrointestinalside effects (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Ibuprofen may be well toleratedin some patients who have had gastrointestinal side effectswith aspirin, but these patients when treated with IBU tablets shouldbe carefully followed for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinalulceration and bleeding. Although it is not definitely known whetheribuprofen causes less peptic ulceration than aspirin, in one studyinvolving 885 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for up to oneyear, there were no reports of gastric ulceration with ibuprofenwhereas frank ulceration was reported in 13 patients in the aspiringroup (statistically significant p<.001).

Gastroscopic studies at varying doses show an increased tendencytoward gastric irritation at higher doses. However, at comparabledoses, gastric irritation is approximately half that seen with aspirin.Studies using 51Cr-tagged red cells indicate that fecal blood lossassociated with Ibuprofen tablets in doses up to 2400 mg daily didnot exceed the normal range, and was significantly less than thatseen in aspirin-treated patients.

In clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Ibuprofenhas been shown to be comparable to indomethacin in controlling thesigns and symptoms of disease activity and to be associated with astatistically significant reduction of the milder gastrointestinal (see ADVERSE REACTIONS) and CNS side effects.

Ibuprofen may be used in combination with gold salts and/or corticosteroids.

Controlled studies have demonstrated that Ibuprofen is a more effective analgesic than propoxyphene for the relief of episiotomy pain, pain following dental extraction procedures, and for the relief ofthe symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea.

In patients with primary dysmenorrhea, Ibuprofen has been shown to reduce elevated levels of prostaglandin activity in the menstrualfluid and to reduce resting and active intrauterine pressure, as well asthe frequency of uterine contractions. The probable mechanism ofaction is to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis rather than simply to provide analgesia.

Pharmacodynamics

In a healthy volunteer study, ibuprofen 400 mg given once daily, administered 2 hours prior to immediate-release aspirin (81 mg) for 6 days, showed an interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin as measured by % serum thromboxane 82 (Tx82) inhibition at 24 hours following the day-6 aspirin dose [53%]. An interaction was still observed, but minimized, when ibuprofen 400 mg given once-daily was administered as early as 8 hours prior to the immediate-release aspirin dose [90.7%]. However, there was no interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin when ibuprofen 400 mg, given once daily, was administered 2 hours after (but not concomitantly, 15 min, or 30 min after) the immediate-release aspirin dose [99.2%].

In another study, where immediate-release aspirin 81 mg was administered once daily with ibuprofen 400 mg given three times daily (1, 7, and 13 hours post-aspirin dose) for 10 consecutive days, the mean % serum thromboxane 82 (Tx82) inhibition suggested no interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin [98.3%]. However, there were individual subjects with serum Tx82 inhibition below 95%, with the lowest being 90.2%.

When a similarly designed study was conducted with enteric-coated aspirin, where healthy subjects were administered enteric-coated aspirin 81 mg once daily for 6 days and ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily (2, 7 and 12 h post-aspirin dose) for 6 days, there was an interaction with the antiplatelet activity at 24 hours following the day-6 aspirin dose [67%]. [See Precautions/Drug Interactions].

Pharmacokinetics

The ibuprofen in IBU tablets is rapidly absorbed. Peak serum ibuprofen levels are generally attained one to two hours after administration.With single doses up to 800 mg, a linear relationship exists between amount of drug administered and the integrated area underthe serum drug concentration vs time curve. Above 800 mg, however,the area under the curve increases less than proportional to increases in dose. There is no evidence of drug accumulation or enzyme induction.

The administration of Ibuprofen tablets either under fasting conditions or immediately before meals yields quite similar serum ibuprofen concentration-time profiles. When Ibuprofen is administered immediately after a meal, there is a reduction in the rate of absorption but no appreciable decrease in the extent of absorption.The bioavailability of the drug is minimally altered by the presence of food.

A bioavailability study has shown that there was no interference with the absorption of ibuprofen when given in conjunction with anantacid containing both aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.

Ibuprofen is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in the urine. The excretion of ibuprofen is virtually complete 24 hours after the last dose. The serum half-life is 1.8 to 2.0 hours.

Studies have shown that following ingestion of the drug, 45% to79% of the dose was recovered in the urine within 24 hours as metabolite A (25%), (+)-2-[p -(2hydroxymethyl-propyl) phenyl] propionic acid and metabolite B (37%), (+)-2-[p -(2carboxypropyl)phenyl]propionic acid; the percentages of free and conjugated ibuprofen were approximately 1% and 14%, respectively.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Ibuprofentablets and other treatment options before deciding to use Ibuprofen.Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent withindividual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

IBU tablets are indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

IBU tablets are indicated for relief of mild to moderate pain.

IBU tablets are also indicated for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

Controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of IBU tablets in children have not been conducted.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

IBU tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivityto ibuprofen.

IBU tablets should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin orother NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS, Preexisting Asthma).

IBU tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery(see WARNINGS).

WARNINGS

CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs.The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events (see WARNINGS).

Status Post Coronary Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Post-MI Patients Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years to follow-up.

Avoid the use of Ibuprofen in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If Ibuprofen is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

Hypertension

NSAIDs including IBU tablets, can lead to onset of new hypertensionor worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which maycontribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients takingthiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapieswhen taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including IBU tablets, should beused with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP)should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatmentand throughout the course of therapy.

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