Prescription Drug Information: Ibuprofen

IBUPROFEN- ibuprofen tablet
Slate Run Pharmaceuticals, LLC

BOXED WARNING

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use. [See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS].
  • Ibuprofen Tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS].

Gastrointestinal Risk

  • NSAIDS cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events. [See WARNINGS].

DESCRIPTION

Ibuprofen Tablets, USP contain the active ingredient ibuprofen, which is (±)-2-( p -isobutylphenyl) propionic acid. Ibuprofen is a white powder with a melting point of 74 to 77°C and is very slightly soluble in water (<1 mg/mL) and readily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone. The structural formula is represented below:

structure

Ibuprofen Tablets, USP, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is available in 400 mg, 600 mg, and 800 mg tablets for oral administration. Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate and talc.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Ibuprofen tablets contain ibuprofen which possesses analgesic and antipyretic activities. Its mode of action, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.

In clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, ibuprofen tablets have been shown to be comparable to aspirin in controlling pain and inflammation and to be associated with a statistically significant reduction in the milder gastrointestinal side effects [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Ibuprofen may be well tolerated in some patients who have had gastrointestinal side effects with aspirin, but these patients when treated with ibuprofen tablets should be carefully followed for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding. Although it is not definitely known whether ibuprofen causes less peptic ulceration than aspirin, in one study involving 885 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for up to one year, there were no reports of gastric ulceration with ibuprofen whereas frank ulceration was reported in 13 patients in the aspirin group (statistically significant p<0.001).

Gastroscopic studies at varying doses show an increased tendency toward gastric irritation at higher doses. However, at comparable doses, gastric irritation is approximately half that seen with aspirin. Studies using 51 Cr-tagged red cells indicate that fecal blood loss associated with ibuprofen tablets in doses up to 2400 mg daily did not exceed the normal range, and was significantly less than that seen in aspirin-treated patients.

In clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ibuprofen has been shown to be comparable to indomethacin in controlling the signs and symptoms of disease activity and to be associated with a statistically significant reduction of the milder gastrointestinal [see ADVERSE REACTIONS] and CNS side effects.

Ibuprofen may be used in combination with gold salts and/or corticosteroids.

Controlled studies have demonstrated that ibuprofen is a more effective analgesic than propoxyphene for the relief of episiotomy pain, pain following dental extraction procedures, and for the relief of the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea.

In patients with primary dysmenorrhea, ibuprofen has been shown to reduce elevated levels of prostaglandin activity in the menstrual fluid and to reduce resting and active intrauterine pressure, as well as the frequency of uterine contractions. The probable mechanism of action is to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis rather than simply to provide analgesia.

Pharmacodynamics

In a healthy volunteer study, ibuprofen 400 mg given once daily, administered 2 hours prior to immediate-release aspirin (81 mg) for 6 days, showed an interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin as measured by % serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2) inhibition at 24 hours following the day-6 aspirin dose [53%]. An interaction was still observed, but minimized, when ibuprofen 400 mg given once-daily was administered as early as 8 hours prior to the immediate-release aspirin dose [90.7%]. However, there was no interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin when ibuprofen 400 mg, given once daily, was administered 2 hours after (but not concomitantly, 15 min, or 30 min after) the immediate-release aspirin dose [99.2%].

In another study, where immediate-release aspirin 81 mg was administered once daily with ibuprofen 400 mg given three times daily (1, 7, and 13 hours post-aspirin dose) for 10 consecutive days, the mean % serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2) inhibition suggested no interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin [98.3%]. However, there were individual subjects with serum TxB2 inhibition below 95%, with the lowest being 90.2%.

When a similarly designed study was conducted with enteric-coated aspirin, where healthy subjects were administered enteric-coated aspirin 81 mg once daily for 6 days and ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily (2, 7 and 12 h post-aspirin dose) for 6 days, there was an interaction with the antiplatelet activity at 24 hours following the day-6 aspirin dose [67%]. [See Precautions/Drug Interactions].

Pharmacokinetics

The ibuprofen in ibuprofen tablets is rapidly absorbed. Peak serum ibuprofen levels are generally attained one to two hours after administration. With single doses up to 800 mg, a linear relationship exists between amount of drug administered and the integrated area under the serum drug concentration vs time curve. Above 800 mg, however, the area under the curve increases less than proportional to increases in dose. There is no evidence of drug accumulation or enzyme induction.

The administration of ibuprofen tablets either under fasting conditions or immediately before meals yields quite similar serum ibuprofen concentration-time profiles. When ibuprofen is administered immediately after a meal, there is a reduction in the rate of absorption but no appreciable decrease in the extent of absorption. The bioavailability of the drug is minimally altered by the presence of food.

A bioavailability study has shown that there was no interference with the absorption of ibuprofen when given in conjunction with an antacid containing both aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.

Ibuprofen is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in the urine. The excretion of ibuprofen is virtually complete 24 hours after the last dose. The serum half-life is 1.8 to 2.0 hours.

Studies have shown that following ingestion of the drug, 45% to 79% of the dose was recovered in the urine within 24 hours as metabolite A (25%), (+)-2-[ p -(2hydroxymethyl-propyl) phenyl] propionic acid and metabolite B (37%), (+)-2-[ p -(2carboxypropyl)phenyl]propionic acid; the percentages of free and conjugated ibuprofen were approximately 1% and 14%, respectively.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ibuprofen tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use ibuprofen. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see WARNINGS].

Ibuprofen tablets are indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

Ibuprofen tablets are indicated for relief of mild to moderate pain.

Ibuprofen tablets are also indicated for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

Controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of ibuprofen tablets in children have not been conducted.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Ibuprofen tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to ibuprofen.

Ibuprofen tablets should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients [see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS, Preexisting Asthma].

Ibuprofen tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see WARNINGS].

WARNINGS

CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see WARNINGS].

Status Post Coronary Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Post-MI Patients

Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV- related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years to follow-up.

Avoid the use of ibuprofen in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If ibuprofen is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

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