Prescription Drug Information: Ketorolac Tromethamine (Page 6 of 7)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reaction rates increase with higher doses of ketorolac tromethamine. Practitioners should be alert for the severe complications of treatment with ketorolac tromethamine, such as GI ulceration, bleeding and perforation, postoperative bleeding, acute renal failure, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions and liver failure (see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). These NSAID-related complications can be serious in certain patients for whom ketorolac tromethamine is indicated, especially when the drug is used inappropriately.

In patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:

Gastrointestinal (GI) experiences including:

abdominal pain *

constipation/diarrhea

dyspepsia *

flatulence

GI fullness

GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal)

gross bleeding/perforation

heartburn

nausea *

stomatitis

vomiting

Other experiences:

abnormal renal function

anemia

dizziness

drowsiness

edema

elevated liver enzymes

headaches *

hypertension

increased bleeding time

injection site pain

pruritus

purpura

Rashes

tinnitus

sweating

* Incidence greater than 10%

Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally (< 1% in patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials) include:

Body as a Whole: fever, infections, sepsis

Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, palpitation, pallor, tachycardia, syncope

Dermatologic: alopecia, photosensitivity, urticaria

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, eructation, esophagitis, excessive thirst, gastritis, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal bleeding

Hemic and Lymphatic: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, epistaxis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight change

Nervous System: abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking, anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, euphoria, extrapyramidal symptoms, hallucinations, hyperkinesis, inability to concentrate, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, stupor, tremors, vertigo, malaise

Reproductive, female: infertility

Respiratory: asthma, cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, rhinitis

Special Senses: abnormal taste, abnormal vision, blurred vision, hearing loss

Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, increased urinary frequency, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure, urinary retention

Other rarely observed reactions (reported from postmarketing experience in patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs) are:

Body as a Whole: angioedema, death, hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reaction, laryngeal edema, tongue edema (see WARNINGS), myalgia

Cardiovascular: arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, flushing, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis

Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Lyell’s syndrome, bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Gastrointestinal: acute pancreatitis, liver failure, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease)

Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, postoperative wound hemorrhage (rarely requiring blood transfusion — see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS)

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia

Nervous System: aseptic meningitis, convulsions, coma, psychosis

Respiratory: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, pneumonia

Special Senses: conjunctivitis

Urogenital: flank pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome

Postmarketing Surveillance Study

A large postmarketing observational, nonrandomized study, involving approximately 10,000 patients receiving ketorolac tromethamine IV/IM , demonstrated that the risk of clinically serious gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was dose-dependent (see Tables 3A and 3B). This was particularly true in elderly patients who received an average daily dose greater than 60 mg/day of ketorolac tromethamine IV/IM (see Table 3A).

Table 3: Incidence of Clinically Serious GI Bleeding as Related to Age, Total Daily Dose, and History of GI Perforation, Ulcer, Bleeding (PUB) After up to 5 Days of Treatment With Ketorolac Tromethamine IV/IM

A. Adult Patients Without History of PUB

Age of Patients

Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac Tromethamine IV/IM

≤ 60 mg

> 60 to 90 mg

> 90 to 120 mg

> 120 mg

< 65 years of age

0.4%

0.4%

0.9%

4.6%

≥ 65 years of age

1.2%

2.8%

2.2%

7.7%

B. Adult Patients With History of PUB

Age of Patients

Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac Tromethamine IV/IM

≤ 60 mg

> 60 to 90 mg

> 90 to 120 mg

> 120 mg

< 65 years of age

2.1%

4.6%

7.8%

15.4%

≥ 65 years of age

4.7%

3.7%

2.8%

25%

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Teva at 1-888-838-2872 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or http://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

OVERDOSAGE

Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdoses are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose.

Treatment

Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following a NSAIDs overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 g to 100 g in adults, 1 g/kg to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large oral overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diuresis, alkalization of urine, hemodialysis or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

Single overdoses of ketorolac tromethamine have been variously associated with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation, peptic ulcers and/or erosive gastritis and renal dysfunction which have resolved after discontinuation of dosing.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ketorolac tromethamine tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use ketorolac tromethamine tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals. In adults, the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 days. In adults, the use of ketorolac tromethamine tablets is only indicated as continuation therapy to IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine.

Transition from IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine (single- or multiple-dose) to multiple-dose ketorolac tromethamine tablets:

Patients age 17 to 64: 20 mg PO once followed by 10 mg q4 to 6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day

Patients age ≥ 65, renally impaired, and/or weight < 50 kg (110 lbs): 10 mg PO once followed by 10 mg q4 to 6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day

Note:

Oral formulation should not be given as an initial dose.

Use minimum effective dose for the individual patient.

Do not shorten dosing interval of 4 to 6 hours.

Total duration of treatment in adult patients: the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 days.

The following table summarizes ketorolac tromethamine tablet dosing instructions in terms of age group:

Table 4: Summary of Dosing Instructions

Patient Population

Ketorolac Tromethamine Tablets (following IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine)

Age < 17 years

Oral not approved

Adult Age 17 to 64 years

20 mg once, then 10 mg q4 to 6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day

Adult Age ≥ 65 years, renally impaired, and/or weight < 50 kg

10 mg once, then 10 mg q4 to 6 hours prn not > 40 mg/day

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