LABETALOL HYDROCHLORIDE- labetalol tablet, film coated
Method Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Labetalol Hydrochloride Tablets, USP
Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP are an adrenergic receptor blocking agent that has both selective alpha1 -adrenergic and nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking actions in a single substance.
Labetalol hydrochloride, USP is a racemate, chemically designated as 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl] benzamide monohydrochloride, and it has the following structure:
Labetalol hydrochloride, USP has the molecular formula C19 H24 N2 O3 •HCl and a molecular weight of 364.87. It has two asymmetric centers and therefore exists as a molecular complex of two diastereoisomeric pairs. Dilevalol, the R,R’ stereoisomer, makes up 25% of racemic labetalol.
Labetalol hydrochloride, USP is a white or off-white crystalline powder, soluble in water.
Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP, for oral administration, contain 100 mg, 200 mg or 300 mg labetalol hydrochloride, USP.
In addition, each 100 mg tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, carnauba wax, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch (corn), red iron oxide, titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide.
In addition, each 200 mg tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, carnauba wax, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch (corn), titanium dioxide and triacetin.
In addition, each 300 mg tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, carnauba wax, FD&C Blue #2, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch (corn), titanium dioxide.
Labetalol hydrochloride combines both selective, competitive, alpha1 -adrenergic blocking and nonselective, competitive, beta-adrenergic blocking activity in a single substance. In man, the ratios of alpha- to beta-blockade have been estimated to be approximately 1:3 and 1:7 following oral and intravenous (IV) administration, respectively. Beta2 -agonist activity has been demonstrated in animals with minimal beta1 -agonist (ISA) activity detected. In animals, at doses greater than those required for alpha- or beta-adrenergic blockade, a membrane-stabilizing effect has been demonstrated.
The capacity of labetalol hydrochloride to block alpha receptors in man has been demonstrated by attenuation of the pressor effect of phenylephrine and by a significant reduction of the pressor response caused by immersing the hand in ice-cold water (“cold pressor test”). Labetalol hydrochloride’s beta1 -receptor blockade in man was demonstrated by a small decrease in the resting heart rate, attenuation of tachycardia produced by isoproterenol or exercise, and by attenuation of the reflex tachycardia to the hypotension produced by amyl nitrite. Beta2 -receptor blockade was demonstrated by inhibition of the isoproterenol-induced fall in diastolic blood pressure. Both the alpha- and beta-blocking actions of orally administered labetalol hydrochloride contribute to a decrease in blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Labetalol hydrochloride consistently, in dose-related fashion, blunted increases in exercise-induced blood pressure and heart rate, and in their double product. The pulmonary circulation during exercise was not affected by labetalol hydrochloride dosing.
Single oral doses of labetalol hydrochloride administered to patients with coronary artery disease had no significant effect on sinus rate, intraventricular conduction, or QRS duration. The atrioventricular (A-V) conduction time was modestly prolonged in two of seven patients. In another study, intravenous (IV) labetalol hydrochloride slightly prolonged A-V nodal conduction time and atrial effective refractory period with only small changes in heart rate. The effects on A-V nodal refractoriness were inconsistent.
Labetalol hydrochloride produces dose-related falls in blood pressure without reflex tachycardia and without significant reduction in heart rate, presumably through a mixture of its alpha blocking and beta-blocking effects. Hemodynamic effects are variable with small, nonsignificant changes in cardiac output seen in some studies but not others, and small decreases in total peripheral resistance. Elevated plasma renins are reduced.
Doses of labetalol hydrochloride that controlled hypertension did not affect renal function in mildly to severely hypertensive patients with normal renal function.
Due to the alpha1 -receptor blocking activity of labetalol hydrochloride, blood pressure is lowered more in the standing than in the supine position, and symptoms of postural hypotension (2%), including rare instances of syncope, can occur. Following oral administration, when postural hypotension has occurred, it has been transient and is uncommon when the recommended starting dose and titration increments are closely followed [see Dosage and Administration]. Symptomatic postural hypotension is most likely to occur 2 to 4 hours after a dose, especially following the use of large initial doses or upon large changes in dose.
The peak effects of single oral doses of labetalol hydrochloride occur within 2 to 4 hours. The duration of effect depends upon dose, lasting at least 8 hours following single oral doses of 100 mg and more than 12 hours following single oral doses of 300 mg. The maximum, steady-state blood pressure response upon oral, twice-a-day dosing occurs within 24 to 72 hours.
The antihypertensive effect of labetalol has a linear correlation with the logarithm of labetalol plasma concentration, and there is also a linear correlation between the reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia occurring at 2 hours after oral administration of labetalol hydrochloride and the logarithm of the plasma concentration.
About 70% of the maximum beta-blocking effect is present for 5 hours after the administration of a single oral dose of 400 mg with suggestion that about 40% remains at 8 hours.
The antianginal efficacy of labetalol hydrochloride has not been studied. In 37 patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease, labetalol hydrochloride did not increase the incidence or severity of angina attacks.
Exacerbation of angina and, in some cases, myocardial infarction and ventricular dysrhythmias have been reported after abrupt discontinuation of therapy with beta-adrenergic blocking agents in patients with coronary artery disease. Abrupt withdrawal of these agents in patients without coronary artery disease has resulted in transient symptoms, including tremulousness, sweating, palpitation, headache, and malaise. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these phenomena, among them increased sensitivity to catecholamines because of increased numbers of beta receptors.
Although beta-adrenergic receptor blockade is useful in the treatment of angina and hypertension, there are also situations in which sympathetic stimulation is vital. For example, in patients with severely damaged hearts, adequate ventricular function may depend on sympathetic drive. Beta-adrenergic blockade may worsen A-V block by preventing the necessary facilitating effects of sympathetic activity on conduction. Beta2 -adrenergic blockade results in passive bronchial constriction by interfering with endogenous adrenergic bronchodilator activity in patients subject to bronchospasm, and it may also interfere with exogenous bronchodilators in such patients.
Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism
Labetalol hydrochloride is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma levels occurring 1 to 2 hours after oral administration. The relative bioavailability of labetalol hydrochloride compared to an oral solution is 100%. The absolute bioavailability (fraction of drug reaching systemic circulation) of labetalol when compared to an intravenous infusion is 25%; this is due to extensive “first-pass” metabolism. Despite “first-pass” metabolism, there is a linear relationship between oral doses of 100 mg to 3000 mg and peak plasma levels. The absolute bioavailability of labetalol is increased when administered with food.
The plasma half-life of labetalol following oral administration is about 6 to 8 hours. Steady-state plasma levels of labetalol during repetitive dosing are reached by about the third day of dosing. In patients with decreased hepatic or renal function, the elimination half-life of labetalol is not altered; however, the relative bioavailability in hepatically impaired patients is increased due to decreased “first-pass” metabolism.
The metabolism of labetalol is mainly through conjugation to glucuronide metabolites. These metabolites are present in plasma and are excreted in the urine and, via the bile, into the feces. Approximately 55% to 60% of a dose appears in the urine as conjugates or unchanged labetalol within the first 24 hours of dosing.
Labetalol has been shown to cross the placental barrier in humans. Only negligible amounts of the drug crossed the blood-brain barrier in animal studies. Labetalol is approximately 50% protein bound. Neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis removes a significant amount of labetalol hydrochloride from the general circulation (less than 1%).
Some pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the elimination of labetalol is reduced in elderly patients. Therefore, although elderly patients may initiate therapy at the currently recommended dosage of 100 mg b.i.d. (twice daily), elderly patients will generally require lower maintenance dosages than nonelderly patients.
Labetalol Hydrochloride Indications and Usage
Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated in the management of hypertension. Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide and loop diuretics.
Labetalol hydrochloride is contraindicated in bronchial asthma, overt cardiac failure, greater-than-first-degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, severe bradycardia, other conditions associated with severe and prolonged hypotension, and in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of the product [see Warnings].
Beta-blockers, even those with apparent cardioselectivity, should not be used in patients with a history of obstructive airway disease, including asthma.
Severe hepatocellular injury, confirmed by rechallenge in at least one case, occurs rarely with labetalol therapy. The hepatic injury is usually reversible, but hepatic necrosis and death have been reported. Injury has occurred after both short- and long-term treatment and may be slowly progressive despite minimal symptomatology. Similar hepatic events have been reported with a related research compound, dilevalol HCl, including two deaths. Dilevalol HCl is one of the four isomers of labetalol hydrochloride. Thus, for patients taking labetalol, periodic determination of suitable hepatic laboratory tests would be appropriate. Appropriate laboratory testing should be done at the first symptom or sign of liver dysfunction (e.g., pruritus, dark urine, persistent anorexia, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, or unexplained “flu-like” symptoms). If the patient has laboratory evidence of liver injury or jaundice, labetalol should be stopped and not restarted.
Sympathetic stimulation is a vital component supporting circulatory function in congestive heart failure. Beta-blockade carries a potential hazard of further depressing myocardial contractility and precipitating more severe failure. Although beta-blockers should be avoided in overt congestive heart failure, if necessary, labetalol hydrochloride can be used with caution in patients with a history of heart failure who are well compensated. Congestive heart failure has been observed in patients receiving labetalol hydrochloride. Labetalol hydrochloride does not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle.
In patients with latent cardiac insufficiency, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a period of time can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure. At the first sign or symptom of impending cardiac failure, patients should be fully digitalized and/or be given a diuretic, and the response should be observed closely. If cardiac failure continues, despite adequate digitalization and diuretic, therapy with labetalol hydrochloride should be withdrawn (gradually, if possible).
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