Prescription Drug Information: Lanthanum Carbonate

LANTHANUM CARBONATE- lanthanum carbonate tablet, chewable
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.


Lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets are a phosphate binder indicated to reduce serum phosphate in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Management of elevated serum phosphorus levels in patients with ESRD usually includes all of the following: reduction in dietary intake of phosphate, removal of phosphate by dialysis. and reduction of intestinal phosphate absorption with phosphate binders.


Divide the total daily dose of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets and take with or immediately after meals. The recommended initial total daily dose of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets is 1,500 mg. Titrate the dose every 2 to 3 weeks until an acceptable serum phosphate level is reached. Monitor serum phosphate levels as needed during dose titration and on a regular basis thereafter.

Lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets has the potential to bind other orally administered drugs; consider separating the administration of other oral medications [see Drug Interactions (7)].

In clinical studies of patients with ESRD, lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets doses up to 4,500 mg were evaluated. Most patients required a total daily dose between 1,500 mg and 3,000 mg to reduce plasma phosphate levels to less than 6.0 mg/dL. Doses were generally titrated in increments of 750 mg/day.

Chew or crush lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets completely before swallowing. Do not swallow intact lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets.

Consider using the oral powder formulation in patients with poor dentition or who have difficulty chewing tablets.


Chewable Tablets: 500 mg, 750 mg, and 1,000 mg.


Contraindicated in bowel obstruction, including ileus and fecal impaction.


5.1 Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects

Serious cases of gastrointestinal obstruction, ileus, subileus, gastrointestinal perforation, and fecal impaction have been reported in patients taking lanthanum, some requiring surgery or hospitalization.

Risk factors for gastrointestinal obstruction and gastrointestinal perforation identified from post-marketing reports in patients taking lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets include abnormal gastrointestinal anatomy (e.g., diverticular disease, peritonitis, history of gastrointestinal surgery, gastrointestinal cancer, gastrointestinal ulceration), hypomotility disorders (e.g., constipation, ileus, subileus, diabetic gastroparesis), and the use of medications known to potentiate these effects. Some cases were reported in patients with no history of gastrointestinal disease.

During treatment with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets, physicians and patients should remain vigilant for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, especially constipation and abdominal pain/distention, which may indicate bowel obstruction, ileus, or subileus. Treatment with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets should be re-evaluated in patients who develop severe constipation or other severe gastrointestinal signs and symptoms.

Patients with acute peptic ulcer, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, or bowel obstruction were not included in lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets clinical studies [see Contraindications (4)].

Advise patients who are prescribed lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets to chew the tablet completely and not to swallow them whole. Serious gastrointestinal complications have been reported in association with unchewed or incompletely chewed tablets.

5.2 Diagnostic Tests

Lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets have radio-opaque properties and therefore may give the appearance typical of an imaging agent during abdominal X-ray procedures.


The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Overall, the safety profile of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets has been studied in over 5,200 subjects in completed clinical trials. The most common adverse reactions for lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets were gastrointestinal events, such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and they generally abated over time with continued dosing.

In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies where a total of 180 and 95 patients with ESRD were randomized to lanthanum carbonate chewable tablet and placebo, respectively, for 4 to 6 weeks of treatment, the most common reactions that were more frequent (≥5% difference) in the lanthanum carbonate chewable tablet group were nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain (Table 1).

Table 1. Adverse Reactions* That Were More Common on Lanthanum Carbonate Chewable Tablets in Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Studies with Treatment Periods of 4 to 6 Weeks

Lanthanum Carbonate Chewable Tablets % (N=180)










Abdominal pain



*Expressed as the event rate for each term

In an open-label, long-term 2-year extension study in 93 patients who had transitioned from other studies, resulting in a total of up to 6 years treatment, mean baseline values and changes in transaminases were similar to those observed in the earlier comparative studies, with little change during treatment.

The safety of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets was studied in two long-term, open-label clinical trials, which included 1,215 patients treated with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets and 944 with alternative therapy. Fourteen percent (14%) of patients treated with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions, such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting were the most common types of event leading to discontinuation.

In pooled active comparator controlled clinical trials, hypocalcemia was noted with an incidence of approximately 5% in both lanthanum and active comparator groups. A nonclinical study and a phase 1 study have shown reduced absorption of calcium in the intestine with lanthanum carbonate treatment.

In a crossover study in 72 healthy individuals comparing lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets to lanthanum carbonate oral powder, gastrointestinal adverse reactions such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting were more common for the oral powder formulation (18%) than for the chewable tablets (7%).

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cases of constipation, intestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, ileus, subileus, dyspepsia, allergic skin reactions, hypophosphatemia, and tooth injury while chewing the tablet have been reported.


7.1 Drugs Binding to Antacids

There is a potential for lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets to interact with compounds which bind to cationic antacids (i.e., aluminum-, magnesium-, or calcium-based); therefore, do not administer such compounds within 2 hours of dosing with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets. Examples of relevant classes of compounds where antacids have been demonstrated to reduce bioavailability include antibiotics (such as quinolones, ampicillin, and tetracyclines), thyroid hormones, ACE inhibitors, statin lipid regulators, and anti-malarials.

7.2 Quinolone Antibiotics

Coadministration of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets with quinolone antibiotics may reduce the extent of their absorption. The bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin was decreased by approximately 50% when taken with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets in a single-dose study in healthy volunteers. Administer oral quinolone antibiotics at least 1 hour before or 4 hours after lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets. When oral quinolones are given for short courses, consider eliminating the doses of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets that would normally be scheduled near the time of quinolone intake to improve quinolone absorption [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.3 Levothyroxine

The bioavailability of levothyroxine was decreased by approximately 40% when taken together with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets. Administer thyroid hormone replacement therapy at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after dosing with lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets and monitor thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.4 Use with Other Oral Medications

There are no empirical data on avoiding drug interactions between lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets and most concomitant oral drugs. For oral medications where a reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have a clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy, consider separation of the timing of the administration of the two drugs. The duration of separation depends upon the absorption characteristics of the medication concomitantly administered, such as the time to reach peak systemic levels and whether the drug is an immediate-release or an extended-release product. Consider monitoring clinical responses or blood levels of concomitant medications that have a narrow therapeutic range.


8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Available data from case reports with use of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets in pregnant women are insufficient to identify a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of lanthanum carbonate to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), resulted in no adverse developmental effects. In rabbits, lanthanum carbonate doses 5 times the MRHD was associated with maternal toxicity and resulted in increased post-implantation loss, reduced fetal weights, and delayed fetal ossification (see Data). Deposition of lanthanum into developing bone, including growth plate, was observed in juvenile animals in long-term animal studies with lanthanum carbonate [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Use a non-lanthanum containing phosphate binder in a pregnant woman. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defect and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.


Animal Data

In pregnant rats, oral administration of lanthanum carbonate at doses as high as 2,000 mg/kg/day during organogenesis resulted in no evidence of harm to the fetus. The MRHD for lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets is 5,725 mg, representing a dose of 95.4 mg/kg, or 3,530 mg/m2 for a 60-kg patient. The 2,000-mg/kg/day dose in the rat is equivalent to 12,000 mg/m2 , 3 times the MRHD. In pregnant rabbits, oral administration of lanthanum carbonate at 1,500 mg/kg/day (18,000 mg/m2 ; 5 times the daily MRHD) during organogenesis was associated with increased postimplantation loss, reduced fetal weights, and delayed fetal ossification. No effects on the pregnant rabbits or fetuses were observed at 750 mg/kg/day (9,000 mg/m2 ; 2.5 times the MRHD).

In a pre- and postnatal development study in the rat, pregnant rats were dosed at up to 2,000 mg/kg/day (12,000 mg/m2 /day; equivalent to 3 times the MRHD) from day 6 of pregnancy through 20 days postpartum (including lactation). At 2,000 mg/kg/day, no maternal toxicity was observed, nor were any changes seen with respect to gestational length or delivery; however, piloerection/pallor, delayed eye opening, decreased body weight, and delayed sexual development were observed in the offspring at 2,000 mg/kg/day. At 200 and 600 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 0.3 and 1 time the MRHD, respectively), slight delays in sexual development (delayed vaginal opening) were observed in the female offspring [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].

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