Prescription Drug Information: Levofloxacin (Page 5 of 13)

6.3 Postmarketing Experience


Table 6 lists adverse reactions that have been identified during post-approval use of levofloxacin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Table 6: Postmarketing Reports Of Adverse Drug Reactions

System/Organ ClassSystem/Organ Class Adverse ReactionAdverse Reaction
System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders pancytopenia aplastic anemia leukopenia hemolytic anemia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6) ] eosinophilia
Immune System Disorders hypersensitivity reactions, sometimes fatal including: anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions anaphylactic shock angioneurotic edema serum sickness [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6, 5.7) ]
Psychiatric Disorders psychosis paranoia isolated reports of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and completed suicide [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4) ]
Nervous System Disorders Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5) ]anosmia ageusia parosmia dysgeusia peripheral neuropathy (may be irreversible) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) ] isolated reports of encephalopathy abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) dysphonia pseudotumor cerebri [see Warning and Precautions ( 5.4) ]
Eye Disorders Uveitis vision disturbance, including diplopia visual acuity reduced vision blurred scotoma
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders hypoacusis tinnitus
Cardiac Disorders isolated reports of torsade de pointes electrocardiogram QT prolonged [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11) ] tachycardia
Vascular Disorders vasodilatation
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders isolated reports of allergic pneumonitis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6) ]
Hepatobiliary Disorders hepatic failure (including fatal cases) hepatitis jaundice [see Warnings and Precautions 5. 6, 5.8) ]
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders bullous eruptions to include: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysis erythema multiforme [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6) ] photosensitivity/photoxicity reaction [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14) ] leukocytoclastic vasculitis
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders tendon rupture [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2) ] muscle injury, including rupture rhabdomyolysis
Renal and Urinary Disorders interstitial nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6) ]
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions multi-organ failure pyrexia
Investigations prothrombin time prolonged international normalized ratio prolonged muscle enzymes increased

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Chelation Agents: Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins


While the chelation by divalent cations is less marked than with other fluoroquinolones, concurrent administration of levofloxacin tablets with antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc may interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamins preparations with zinc or didanosine may substantially interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral levofloxacin administration.

7.2 Warfarin

No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R- and S- warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, there have been reports during the postmarketing experience in patients that levofloxacin enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and levofloxacin use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if levofloxacin is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.3) ; Patient Counseling Information ( 17) ].

7.3 Antidiabetic Agents


Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with fluoroquinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13); Adverse Reactions ( 6.2) and Patient Counseling Information ( 17)].

7.4 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs


The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a fluoroquinolone, including levofloxacin, may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)].

7.5 Theophylline

No significant effect of levofloxacin on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other fluoroquinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when levofloxacin is co-administered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)].

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