6.3 Postmarketing Experience
|System/Organ Class||Adverse Reaction|
|Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders||pancytopeniaaplastic anemialeukopeniahemolytic anemia[see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] eosinophilia|
|Immune System Disorders||hypersensitivity reactions, sometimes fatal including: anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions anaphylactic shock angioneurotic edema serum sickness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6, 5.7)]|
|Psychiatric Disorders||psychosisparanoiaisolated reports of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and completed suicide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]|
|Nervous System Disorders||exacerbation of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] anosmiaageusiaparosmiadysgeusiaperipheral neuropathy (may be irreversible) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] isolated reports of encephalopathyabnormal electroencephalogram (EEG)dysphonia pseudotumor cerebri [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]|
|Eye Disorders||uveitisvision disturbance, including diplopiavisual acuity reducedvision blurredscotoma|
|Ear and Labyrinth Disorders||hypoacusistinnitus|
|Cardiac Disorders||isolated reports of torsade de pointeselectrocardiogram QT prolonged[see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)] tachycardia|
|Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders||isolated reports of allergic pneumonitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]|
|Hepatobiliary Disorders||hepatic failure (including fatal cases)hepatitisjaundice [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), (5.8)]|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders||bullous eruptions to include: Stevens-Johnson syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysisAcute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) fixed drug eruptions erythema multiforme[see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)] leukocytoclastic vasculitis|
|Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders||tendon rupture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] muscle injury, including rupturerhabdomyolysis|
|Renal and Urinary Disorders||interstitial nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]|
|General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions||multi-organ failurepyrexia|
|Investigations||prothrombin time prolongedinternational normalized ratio prolongedmuscle enzymes increased|
While the chelation by divalent cations is less marked than with other fluoroquinolones, concurrent administration of levofloxacin tablets with antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc may interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine may substantially interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral levofloxacin administration.
No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R- and S- warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, there have been reports during the postmarketing experience in patients that levofloxacin enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and levofloxacin use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if levofloxacin is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding [see Adverse Reactions (6.3); Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with fluoroquinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 ); Adverse Reactions (6.2), Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a fluoroquinolone, including levofloxacin, may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
No significant effect of levofloxacin on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other fluoroquinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when levofloxacin is co-administered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for cyclosporine was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. However, elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported in the patient population when co-administered with some other fluoroquinolones. Levofloxacin Cmax and ke were slightly lower while Tmax and t½ were slightly longer in the presence of cyclosporine than those observed in other studies without concomitant medication. The differences, however, are not considered to be clinically significant. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is required for levofloxacin or cyclosporine when administered concomitantly.
No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for digoxin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Levofloxacin absorption and disposition kinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. Therefore, no dosage adjustment for levofloxacin or digoxin is required when administered concomitantly.
No significant effect of probenecid or cimetidine on the Cmax of levofloxacin was observed in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. The AUC and t1/2 of levofloxacin were higher while CL/F and CLR were lower during concomitant treatment of levofloxacin with probenecid or cimetidine compared to levofloxacin alone. However, these changes do not warrant dosage adjustment for levofloxacin when probenecid or cimetidine is co-administered.
Some fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, may produce false-positive urine screening results for opiates using commercially available immunoassay kits. Confirmation of positive opiate screens by more specific methods may be necessary.
Pregnancy Category C. Levofloxacin was not teratogenic in rats at oral doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 9.4 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or at intravenous doses as high as 160 mg/kg/day corresponding to 1.9 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area. The oral dose of 810 mg/kg/day to rats caused decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality. No teratogenicity was observed when rabbits were dosed orally as high as 50 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 1.1 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or when dosed intravenously as high as 25 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 0.5 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Levofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Based on data on other fluoroquinolones and very limited data on levofloxacin, it can be presumed that levofloxacin will be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from levofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Quinolones, including levofloxacin, cause arthropathy and osteochondrosis in juvenile animals of several species [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology (13.2)].
Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients 6 months of age and older, for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure). The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate. The safety of levofloxacin in pediatric patients treated for more than 14 days has not been studied [see Indications and Usage (1.7), Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Studies (14.9)].
Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older, for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague. Efficacy studies of levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with pneumonic plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals. The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate [see Indications and Usage (1.8), Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Studies (14.10)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of six months have not been established.
Pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration
The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following a single intravenous dose were investigated in pediatric patients ranging in age from six months to 16 years. Pediatric patients cleared levofloxacin faster than adult patients resulting in lower plasma exposures than adults for a given mg/kg dose [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.9)].
Dosage in Pediatric Patients with Inhalational Anthrax or Plague For the recommended levofloxacin tablet dosage in pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax or plague, see Dosage and Administration (2.2). Levofloxacin tablets cannot be administered to pediatric patients who weigh less than 30 kg because of the limitations of the available strengths. Alternative formulations of levofloxacin may be considered for pediatric patients who weigh less than 30 kg.
In clinical trials, 1534 children (6 months to 16 years of age) were treated with oral and intravenous levofloxacin. Children 6 months to 5 years of age received levofloxacin 10 mg/kg twice a day and children greater than 5 years of age received 10 mg/kg once a day (maximum 500 mg per day) for approximately 10 days. Levofloxacin tablets can only be administered to pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) or plague who are 30 kg or greater due to the limitations of the available strengths [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
A subset of children in the clinical trials (1340 levofloxacin-treated and 893 non-fluoroquinolone-treated) enrolled in a prospective, long-term surveillance study to assess the incidence of protocol-defined musculoskeletal disorders (arthralgia, arthritis, tendinopathy, gait abnormality) during 60 days and 1 year following the first dose of the study drug. Children treated with levofloxacin had a significantly higher incidence of musculoskeletal disorders when compared to the non-fluoroquinolone-treated children as illustrated in Table 7. Levofloxacin tablets can only be administered to pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) or plague who are 30 kg or greater due to the limitations of the available strengths [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
|* Non-Fluoroquinolone: ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanate, clarithromycin † 2-sided Fisher’s Exact Test ‡ There were 1199 levofloxacin-treated and 804 non-fluoroquinolone-treated children who had a one-year evaluation visit. However, the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders was calculated using all reported events during the specified period for all children enrolled regardless of whether they completed the 1-year evaluation visit.|
|Follow-up Period||Levofloxacin N = 1340||Non-Fluoroquinolone * N = 893||p-value†|
|60 days||28 (2.1%)||8 (0.9%)||p = 0.038|
|1 year‡||46 (3.4%)||16 (1.8%)||p = 0.025|
Arthralgia was the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal disorder in both treatment groups. Most of the musculoskeletal disorders in both groups involved multiple weight-bearing joints. Disorders were moderate in 8/46 (17%) children and mild in 35/46 (76%) levofloxacin-treated children and most were treated with analgesics. The median time to resolution was 7 days for levofloxacin-treated children and 9 for non-fluoroquinolone-treated children (approximately 80% resolved within 2 months in both groups). No child had a severe or serious disorder and all musculoskeletal disorders resolved without sequelae.
Vomiting and diarrhea were the most frequently reported adverse events, occurring in similar frequency in the levofloxacin-treated and non-fluoroquinolone-treated children.
In addition to the events reported in pediatric patients in clinical trials, events reported in adults during clinical trials or post-marketing experience [see Adverse Reactions (6)] may also be expected to occur in pediatric patients.
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