Prescription Drug Information: Lisinopril (Page 2 of 5)

5.3 Impaired Renal Function

Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with lisinopril. Changes in renal function including acute renal failure can be caused by drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease, severe congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure on lisinopril. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function on lisinopril [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1), Drug Interactions ( 7.4)].

5.4 Hypotension

Lisinopril can cause symptomatic hypotension, sometimes complicated by oliguria, progressive azotemia, acute renal failure or death. Patients at risk of excessive hypotension include those with the following conditions or characteristics: heart failure with systolic blood pressure below 100 mmHg, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hyponatremia, high dose diuretic therapy, renal dialysis, or severe volume and/or salt depletion of any etiology.

In these patients, lisinopril should be started under very close medical supervision and such patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of lisinopril and/or diuretic is increased. Avoid use of lisinopril in patients who are hemodynamically unstable after acute MI.

Symptomatic hypotension is also possible in patients with severe aortic stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Surgery/Anesthesia

In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, lisinopril may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.

5.5 Hyperkalemia

Serum potassium should be monitored periodically in patients receiving lisinopril. Drugs that inhibit the renin angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1)].

5.6 Hepatic Failure

ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice or hepatitis and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and sometimes death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical treatment.

5.7 Risk of Allergic Reactions due to Tartrazine

Lisinopril tablets, 20 mg, 30 mg, and 40 mg contain FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Hypertension

In clinical trials in patients with hypertension treated with lisinopril, 5.7% of patients on lisinopril discontinued with adverse reactions.

The following adverse reactions (events 2% greater on lisinopril than on placebo) were observed with lisinopril alone: headache (by 3.8%), dizziness (by 3.5%), cough (by 2.5%).

Heart Failure

In patients with systolic heart failure treated with lisinopril for up to four years, 11% discontinued therapy with adverse reactions. In controlled studies in patients with heart failure, therapy was discontinued in 8.1% of patients treated with lisinopril for 12 weeks, compared to 7.7% of patients treated with placebo for 12 weeks.

The following adverse reactions (events 2% greater on lisinopril than on placebo) were observed with lisinopril: hypotension (by 3.8%), chest pain (by 2.1%).

In the two-dose ATLAS trial [see Clinical Studies ( 14.2)] in heart failure patients, withdrawals due to adverse reactions were not different between the low and high groups, either in total number of discontinuation (17 to 18%) or in rare specific reactions (<1%). The following adverse reactions, mostly related to ACE inhibition, were reported more commonly in the high dose group:

Table 1 Dose-related Adverse Drug Reactions: ATLAS trial
High Dose
(n=1568)
Low Dose
(n=1596)
Dizziness 19% 12%
Hypotension 11% 7%
Creatinine increased 10% 7%
Hyperkalemia 6% 4%
Syncope 7% 5%

Acute Myocardial Infarction

Patients treated with lisinopril had a higher incidence of hypotension (by 5.3%) and renal dysfunction (by 1.3%) compared with patients not taking lisinopril.

Other clinical adverse reactions occurring in 1% or higher of patients with hypertension or heart failure treated with lisinopril in controlled clinical trials and do not appear in other sections of labeling are listed below:

Body as a whole: Fatigue, asthenia, orthostatic effects.

Digestive: Pancreatitis, constipation, flatulence, dry mouth, diarrhea.

Hematologic: Rare cases of bone marrow depression, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia/neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

Endocrine: Diabetes mellitus, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

Metabolic: Gout.

Skin: Urticaria, alopecia, photosensitivity, erythema, flushing, diaphoresis, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens — Johnson syndrome, and pruritus.

Special Senses: Visual loss, diplopia, blurred vision, tinnitus, photophobia, taste disturbances, olfactory disturbance.

Urogenital: Impotence.

Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia, fever, vasculitis, eosinophilia, leukocytosis, paresthesia and vertigo. Rash, photosensitivity or other dermatological manifestations may occur alone or in combination with these symptoms.

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings

Serum Potassium: In clinical trials hyperkalemia (serum potassium greater than 5.7 mEq/L) occurred in 2.2% and 4.8% of lisinopril -treated patients with hypertension and heart failure, respectively [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)].

Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, were observed in about 2% of patients with hypertension treated with lisinopril alone. Increases were more common in patients receiving concomitant diuretics and in patients with renal artery stenosis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]. Reversible minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were observed in 11.6% of patients with heart failure on concomitant diuretic therapy. Frequently, these abnormalities resolved when the dosage of the diuretic was decreased.

Patients with acute myocardial infarction in the GISSI-3 trial treated with lisinopril had a higher (2.4% versus 1.1% in placebo) incidence of renal dysfunction in-hospital and at six weeks (increasing creatinine concentration to over 3 mg/dL or a doubling or more of the baseline serum creatinine concentration).

Hemoglobin and Hematocrit: Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of approximately 0.4 g% and 1.3 vol%, respectively) occurred frequently in patients treated with lisinopril but were rarely of clinical importance in patients without some other cause of anemia. In clinical trials, less than 0.1% of patients discontinued therapy due to anemia.

6.2 Post-marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of lisinopril that are not included in other sections of labeling. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Other reactions include:

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Hyponatremia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)] , cases of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients on oral antidiabetic agents or insulin [see Drug Interactions ( 7.2)]

Nervous system and psychiatric disorders

Mood alterations (including depressive symptoms), mental confusion, hallucinations

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Psoriasis

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Diuretics

Initiation of lisinopril in patients on diuretics may result in excessive reduction of blood pressure. The possibility of hypotensive effects with lisinopril can be minimized by either decreasing or discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with lisinopril. If this is not possible, reduce the starting dose of lisinopril [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)].

Lisinopril attenuates potassium loss caused by thiazide-type diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Therefore, if concomitant use of such agents is indicated, monitor the patient’s serum potassium frequently.

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