Prescription Drug Information: Lopressor (Page 3 of 4)

Nursing Mothers

Lopressor is excreted in breast milk in a very small quantity. An infant consuming 1 liter of breast milk daily would receive a dose of less than 1 mg of the drug.

Fertility

The effects of Lopressor on the fertility of human have not been studied.

Lopressor showed effects on spermatogenesis in male rats at a therapeutic dose level, but had no effect on rates of conception at higher doses in animal fertility studies (see Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of Lopressor in hypertension did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether patients over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to Lopressor. Other reported clinical experience in elderly hypertensive patients has not identified any difference in response from younger patients.

In worldwide clinical trials of Lopressor in myocardial infarction, where approximately 478 patients were over 65 years of age (0 over 75 years of age), no age-related differences in safety and effectiveness were found. Other reported clinical experience in myocardial infarction has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. However, greater sensitivity of some elderly individuals taking Lopressor cannot be categorically ruled out. Therefore, in general, it is recommended that dosing proceed with caution in this population.

Adverse Reactions to Lopressor

Hypertension and Angina

Most adverse effects have been mild and transient.

Central Nervous System: Tiredness and dizziness have occurred in about 10 of 100 patients. Depression has been reported in about 5 of 100 patients. Mental confusion and short-term memory loss have been reported. Headache, nightmares, and insomnia have also been reported.

Cardiovascular: Shortness of breath and bradycardia have occurred in approximately 3 of 100 patients. Cold extremities; arterial insufficiency, usually of the Raynaud type; palpitations; congestive heart failure; peripheral edema; and hypotension have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Gangrene in patients with pre-existing severe peripheral circulatory disorders has also been reported very rarely ( s ee CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS) .

Respiratory: Wheezing (bronchospasm) and dyspnea have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients (see WARNINGS). Rhinitis has also been reported.

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea has occurred in about 5 of 100 patients. Nausea, dry mouth, gastric pain, constipation, flatulence, and heartburn have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Vomiting was a common occurrence. Postmarketing experience reveals very rare reports of hepatitis, jaundice and non-specific hepatic dysfunction. Isolated cases of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactic dehydrogenase elevations have also been reported.

HypersensitiveReactions: Pruritus or rash have occurred in about 5 of 100 patients. Very rarely, photosensitivity and worsening of psoriasis has been reported.

Miscellaneous: Peyronie’s disease has been reported in fewer than 1 of 100,000 patients. Musculoskeletal pain, blurred vision, and tinnitus have also been reported.

There have been rare reports of reversible alopecia, agranulocytosis, and dry eyes. Discontinuation of the drug should be considered if any such reaction is not otherwise explicable. There have been very rare reports of weight gain, arthritis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis (relationship to Lopressor has not been definitely established).

The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with Lopressor.

Myocardial Infarction

Central Nervous System: Tiredness has been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Vertigo, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, confusion, and reduced libido have also been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.

Cardiovascular: In the randomized comparison of Lopressor and placebo described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section, the following adverse reactions were reported:

Lopressor ® Placebo
Hypotension (systolic BP < 90 mm Hg) 27.4% 23.2%
Bradycardia (heart rate < 40 beats/min) 15.9% 6.7%
Second- or third-degree heart block 4.7% 4.7%
First-degree heart block (P-R ≥ 0.26 sec) 5.3% 1.9%
Heart failure 27.5% 29.6%

Respiratory: Dyspnea of pulmonary origin has been reported in fewer than 1 of 100 patients.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea and abdominal pain have been reported in fewer than 1 of 100 patients.

Dermatologic: Rash and worsened psoriasis have been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.

Miscellaneous: Unstable diabetes and claudication have been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.

Potential Adverse Reactions

A variety of adverse reactions not listed above have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse reactions to Lopressor.

Central Nervous System: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics.

Cardiovascular: Intensification of AV block (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura and thrombocytopenic purpura.

Hypersensitive Reactions: Fever combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm and respiratory distress.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of Lopressor: confusional state, an increase in blood triglycerides and a decrease in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). Because these reports are from a population of uncertain size and are subject to confounding factors, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Validus Pharmaceuticals LLC at

1-866-982-5438 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

OVERDOSAGE

Acute Toxicity

Several cases of overdosage have been reported, some leading to death.

Oral LD 50 ’s (mg/kg): mice, 1158-2460; rats, 3090-4670.

Signs and Symptoms

Potential signs and symptoms associated with overdosage with Lopressor are bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure and death.

Management

There is no specific antidote.

In general, patients with acute or recent myocardial infarction may be more hemodynamically unstable than other patients and should be treated accordingly (see WARNINGS, Myocardial Infarction).

On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of Lopressor, the following general measures should be employed:

Elimination of the Drug: Gastric lavage should be performed.

Other clinical manifestations of overdose should be managed symptomatically based on modern methods of intensive care.

Hypotension: Administer a vasopressor, e.g., levarterenol or dopamine.

Bronchospasm: Administer a beta2 -stimulating agent and/or a theophylline derivative.

Cardiac Failure: Administer digitalis glycoside and diuretic. In shock resulting from inadequate cardiac contractility, consider administration of dobutamine, isoproterenol or glucagon.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Hypertension

Individualize the dosage of Lopressor tablets. Lopressor tablets should be taken with or immediately following meals.

The usual initial dosage of Lopressor tablets is 100 mg daily in single or divided doses, whether used alone or added to a diuretic. Increase the dosage at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. In general, the maximum effect of any given dosage level will be apparent after 1 week of therapy. The effective dosage range of Lopressor tablets is 100 to 450 mg per day. Dosages above 450 mg per day have not been studied. While once-daily dosing is effective and can maintain a reduction in blood pressure throughout the day, lower doses (especially 100 mg) may not maintain a full effect at the end of the 24-hour period, and larger or more frequent daily doses may be required. This can be evaluated by measuring blood pressure near the end of the dosing interval to determine whether satisfactory control is being maintained throughout the day. Beta1 selectivity diminishes as the dose of Lopressor is increased.

Angina Pectoris

The dosage of Lopressor tablets should be individualized. Lopressor tablets should be taken with or immediately following meals.

The usual initial dosage of Lopressor tablets is 100 mg daily, given in two divided doses. gradually increase the dosage at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is pronounced slowing of the heart rate. The effective dosage range of Lopressor tablets is 100 to 400 mg per day. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. If treatment is to be discontinued, gradually decrease the dosage over a period of 1 to 2 weeks (see WARNINGS).

Myocardial Infarction

Early Treatment: During the early phase of definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction, initiate treatment with Lopressor as soon as possible after the patient’s arrival in the hospital. Such treatment should be initiated in a coronary care or similar unit immediately after the patient’s hemodynamic condition has stabilized.

Begin treatment in this early phase with the intravenous administration of three bolus injections of 5 mg of Lopressor each; give the injections at approximately 2-minute intervals. During the intravenous administration of Lopressor, monitor blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram.

In patients who tolerate the full intravenous dose (15 mg), initiate Lopressor tablets, 50 mg every 6 hours, 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose and continue for 48 hours. Thereafter, the maintenance dosage is 100 mg twice daily (see Late Treatment below).

Start patients who appear not to tolerate the full intravenous dose on Lopressor tablets either 25 mg or 50 mg every 6 hours (depending on the degree of intolerance) 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose or as soon as their clinical condition allows. In patients with severe intolerance, discontinue Lopressor (see WARNINGS).

Late Treatment: Start patients with contraindications to treatment during the early phase of suspected or definite myocardial infarction, patients who appear not to tolerate the full early treatment, and patients in whom the physician wishes to delay therapy for any other reason on Lopressor tablets, 100 mg twice daily, as soon as their clinical condition allows. Continue therapy for at least 3 months. Although the efficacy of Lopressor beyond 3 months has not been conclusively established, data from studies with other beta-blockers suggest that treatment should be continued for 1 to 3 years.

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