LOSARTAN POTASSIUM — losartan potassium tablet, film coated
RPK Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
When pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan potassium as soon as possible. Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Losartan potassium tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension in adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarction. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including losartan.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in Black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Losartan potassium tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.
Losartan potassium tablets are indicated to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, but there is evidence that this benefit does not apply to Black patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Losartan potassium tablets are indicated for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria (urinary albumin to creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g) in patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of hypertension. In this population, losartan potassium tablets reduces the rate of progression of nephropathy as measured by the occurrence of doubling of serum creatinine or end stage renal disease (need for dialysis or renal transplantation) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
The usual starting dose of losartan potassium tablets is 50 mg once daily. The dosage can be increased to a maximum dose of 100 mg once daily as needed to control blood pressure [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. A starting dose of 25 mg is recommended for patients with possible intravascular depletion (e.g., on diuretic therapy).
The usual recommended starting dose is 0.7 mg per kg once daily (up to 50 mg total) administered as a tablet or a suspension [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)]. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 1.4 mg per kg (or in excess of 100 mg) daily have not been studied in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.1), and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Losartan potassium tablets are not recommended in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age or in pediatric patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14)].
The usual starting dose is 50 mg of losartan potassium tablets once daily. Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg daily should be added and/or the dose of losartan potassium tablets should be increased to 100 mg once daily followed by an increase in hydrochlorothiazide to 25 mg once daily based on blood pressure response [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
The usual starting dose is 50 mg once daily. The dose should be increased to 100 mg once daily based on blood pressure response [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
In patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment the recommended starting dose of losartan potassium tablets is 25 mg once daily. Losartan potassium tablets have not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Use in Special Populations (8.8) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Add 10 mL of Purified Water USP to an 8 ounce (240 mL) amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle containing ten 50 mg losartan potassium tablets. Immediately shake for at least 2 minutes. Let the concentrate stand for 1 hour and then shake for 1 minute to disperse the tablet contents. Separately prepare a 50/50 volumetric mixture of Ora-Plus™ and Ora-Sweet SF™. Add 190 mL of the 50/50 Ora-Plus™ /Ora-Sweet SF™ mixture to the tablet and water slurry in the PET bottle and shake for 1 minute to disperse the ingredients. The suspension should be refrigerated at 2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F) and can be stored for up to 4 weeks. Shake the suspension prior to each use and return promptly to the refrigerator.
- Losartan Potassium Tablets USP, 25 mg are green colored, oval shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets debossed with ‘E’ on one side and ‘45’ on other side.
- Losartan Potassium Tablets USP, 50 mg are green colored, oval shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets debossed with ‘E’ on one side and ‘4’ and ‘6’ separated by scoreline on other side.
- Losartan Potassium Tablets USP, 100 mg are green colored, oval shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets debossed with ‘E’ on one side and ‘47’ on other side.
Losartan potassium tablets are contraindicated:
- In patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
- For coadministration with aliskiren in patients with diabetes.
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan potassium as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume- or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of treatment with losartan potassium. Correct volume or salt depletion prior to administration of losartan potassium [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Changes in renal function including acute renal failure can be caused by drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system and by diuretics. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease, severe congestive heart failure, or volume depletion) may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure on losartan potassium. Monitor renal function periodically in these patients. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function on losartan potassium [see Drug Interactions (7.3) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Monitor serum potassium periodically and treat appropriately. Dosage reduction or discontinuation of losartan potassium may be required [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Concomitant use of other drugs that may increase serum potassium may lead to hyperkalemia [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Losartan potassium has been evaluated for safety in more than 3300 adult patients treated for essential hypertension and 4058 patients/subjects overall. Over 1200 patients were treated for over 6 months and more than 800 for over one year.
Treatment with losartan potassium was well-tolerated with an overall incidence of adverse events similar to that of placebo. In controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy for adverse events occurred in 2.3% of patients treated with losartan potassium and 3.7% of patients given placebo. In 4 clinical trials involving over 1000 patients on various doses (10 to 150 mg) of losartan potassium and over 300 patients given placebo, the adverse events that occurred in ≥2% of patients treated with losartan potassium and more commonly than placebo were: dizziness (3% vs. 2%), upper respiratory infection (8% vs. 7%), nasal congestion (2% vs. 1%), and back pain (2% vs. 1%).
The following less common adverse reactions have been reported:
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Anemia.
Psychiatric disorders: Depression.
Nervous system disorders: Somnolence, headache, sleep disorders, paresthesia, migraine.
Ear and labyrinth disorders: Vertigo, tinnitus.
Cardiac disorders: Palpitations, syncope, atrial fibrillation, CVA.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Dyspnea.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal pain, constipation, nausea, vomiting.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Urticaria, pruritus, rash, photosensitivity.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Myalgia, arthralgia.
Reproductive system and breast disorders: Impotence.
General disorders and administration site conditions: Edema.
Persistent dry cough (with an incidence of a few percent) has been associated with ACE-inhibitor use and in practice can be a cause of discontinuation of ACE-inhibitor therapy. Two prospective, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were conducted to assess the effects of losartan on the incidence of cough in hypertensive patients who had experienced cough while receiving ACE-inhibitor therapy. Patients who had typical ACE-inhibitor cough when challenged with lisinopril, whose cough disappeared on placebo, were randomized to losartan 50 mg, lisinopril 20 mg, or either placebo (one study, n=97) or 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n=135). The double-blind treatment period lasted up to 8 weeks. The incidence of cough is shown in Table 1 below.
|* Demographics = (89% Caucasian, 64% female) † Demographics = (90% Caucasian, 51% female)|
These studies demonstrate that the incidence of cough associated with losartan therapy, in a population that all had cough associated with ACE-inhibitor therapy, is similar to that associated with hydrochlorothiazide or placebo therapy.
Cases of cough, including positive re-challenges, have been reported with the use of losartan in postmarketing experience.
Hypertensive Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
In the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint (LIFE) study, adverse reactions with losartan potassium were similar to those reported previously for patients with hypertension.
Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
In the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study involving 1513 patients treated with losartan potassium or placebo, the overall incidences of reported adverse events were similar for the two groups. Discontinuations of losartan potassium because of side effects were similar to placebo (19% for losartan potassium, 24% for placebo). The adverse events, regardless of drug relationship, reported with an incidence of ≥4% of patients treated with losartan potassium and occurring with ≥2% difference in the losartan group vs. placebo on a background of conventional antihypertensive therapy, were asthenia/fatigue, chest pain, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, diarrhea, anemia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, back pain, muscular weakness, and urinary tract infection.
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