Patients should be instructed to report promptly the occurrence of headache or other unusual symptoms, i.e., palpitation and/or tachycardia, a sense of constriction in the throat or chest, sweating, dizziness, neck stiffness, nausea, or vomiting. Patients should be warned against eating the foods listed under CONTRAINDICATIONS while on Marplan therapy and should also be told not to drink alcoholic beverages. The patient should also be warned about the possibility of hypotension and faintness, as well as drowsiness sufficient to impair performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a car or operating machinery.
Patients should also be cautioned not to take concomitant medications, whether prescription or over-the-counter drugs such as cold, hay fever, or weight-reducing preparations, without the advice of a physician. They should be advised not to consume excessive amounts of caffeine in any form. Likewise, they should inform their physicians and their dentist about the use of Marplan.
Because of the limited experience with systematically monitored patients receiving Marplan at the higher end of the currently recommended dose range of up to 60 mg/day, caution is indicated in patients for whom a dose of 40 mg/day is exceeded ( see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with Marplan and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide about “Antidepressant Medications, Depression and Other Serious Mental Illness, and Suicidal Thoughts and Actions” is available for Marplan. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.
Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking Marplan.
Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to observe for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient’s prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication.
Anyone considering the use of Marplan in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.
Hypotension has been observed during Marplan therapy. Symptoms of postural hypotension are seen most commonly, but not exclusively, in patients with preexistent hypertension; blood pressure usually returns rapidly to pretreatment levels upon discontinuation of the drug. Dosage increases should be made more gradually in patients showing a tendency toward hypotension at the beginning of therapy. Postural hypotension may be relieved by having the patient lie down until blood pressure returns to normal. When Marplan is combined with phenothiazine derivatives or other compounds known to cause hypotension, the possibility of additive hypotensive effects should be considered.
Lower Seizure Threshold
Because Marplan lowers the convulsive threshold in some animal experiments, suitable precautions should be taken if epileptic patients are treated. Marplan appears to have varying effects in epileptic patients; while some have a decrease in frequency of seizures, others have more seizures.
Drugs that lower the seizure threshold, including MAO inhibitors, should not be used with Amipaque® (metrizamide, Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals). As with other MAO inhibitors, Marplan should be discontinued at least 48 hours before myelography and should not be resumed for at least 24 hours postprocedure.
There is a low incidence of altered liver function or jaundice in patients treated with Marplan. In the past, it was difficult to differentiate most cases of drug-induced hepatocellular jaundice from viral hepatitis although this is no longer true. Periodic liver chemistry tests should be performed during Marplan therapy; use of the drug should be discontinued at the first sign of hepatic dysfunction or jaundice.
In depressed patients, the possibility of suicide should always be considered and adequate precautions taken. Exclusive reliance on drug therapy to prevent suicidal attempts is unwarranted, as there may be a delay in the onset of therapeutic effect or an increase in anxiety or agitation. Also, some patients fail to respond to drug therapy or may respond only temporarily. The strictest supervision, and preferably hospitalization, are required.
Use in Patients With Concomitant Illness
MAO inhibitors can suppress anginal pain that would otherwise serve as a warning of myocardial ischemia.
In patients with impaired renal function, Marplan should be used cautiously to prevent accumulation.
Some MAO inhibitors have contributed to hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients receiving insulin or glycemic agents. Marplan should therefore be used with caution in diabetics using these drugs.
Marplan may aggravate coexisting symptoms in depression, such as anxiety and agitation.
Use Marplan with caution in hyperthyroid patients because of their increased sensitivity to pressor amines.
Marplan should be used cautiously in hyperactive or agitated patients, as well as in schizophrenic patients, because it may cause excessive stimulation. Activation of mania/hypomania has been reported in a small proportion of patients with major affective disorder who were treated with marketed antidepressants.
Marplan should be administered with caution to patients receiving Antabuse® (disulfiram, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories). In a single study, rats given high intraperitoneal doses of an MAO inhibitor plus disulfiram experienced severe toxicity, including convulsions and death.
Concomitant use of Marplan and other psychotropic agents is generally not recommended because of possible potentiating effects. This is especially true in patients who may subject themselves to an overdosage of drugs. If combination therapy is needed, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of all agents to be used. The monoamine oxidase inhibitory effects of Marplan may persist for a substantial period after discontinuation of the drug, and this should be borne in mind when another drug is prescribed following Marplan. To avoid potentiation, the physician wishing to terminate treatment with Marplan and begin therapy with another agent should allow for an interval of 10 days.
Long-term studies to evaluate carcinogenic potential have not been conducted with this drug, and there is no information concerning mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antidepressant, including MARPLAN, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants at 1-844-405-6185 or visiting online at http://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/antidepressants
The potential reproductive toxicity of isocarboxazid has not been adequately evaluated in animals. It is also not known whether isocarboxazid can cause embryo/fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Marplan should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Levels of excretion of isocarboxazid and/or its metabolites in human milk have not been determined, and effects on the nursing infant are unknown. Marplan should be used in women who are nursing only if clearly needed.
Marplan is not recommended for use in patients under 16 years of age, as safety and effectiveness in pediatric populations have not been demonstrated.
Systematically collected data are available from only 86 patients exposed to Marplan, of whom only 52 received doses of ≥50 mg/day, including only 11 who were dosed at ≥60 mg/day. Because of the limited experience with systematically monitored patients receiving Marplan at the higher end of the currently recommended dose range of up to 60 mg/day, caution is indicated in patients for whom a dose of 40 mg/day is exceeded ( see WARNINGS).
The table that follows enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment emergent adverse events that occurred among 86 depressed patients who received Marplan at doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials of 6 weeks in duration. Events included are those occurring in 1% or more of patients treated with Marplan and for which the incidence in patients treated with Marplan was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.
The prescriber should be aware that these figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those which prevailed in clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidence rate in the population studied.
The commonly observed adverse event that occurred in Marplan patients with an incidence of 5% or greater and at least twice the incidence in placebo patients were nausea, dry mouth, and dizziness (see Table).
In three clinical trials for which the data were pooled, 4 of 85 (5%) patients who received placebo, 10 of 86 (12%) who received <50 mg of Marplan per day, and 1 of 52 (2%) who received ≥50 mg of Marplan per day prematurely discontinued treatment. The most common reasons for discontinuation were dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dry mouth.
|BODY SYSTEM/ ADVERSE EVENT||PLACEBO (N=85)||MARPLAN <50 mg (N=86)||MARPLAN ≥ 50 mg (N=52) 2|
|CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM|
1 Events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with Marplan are presented, except for those that had an incidence on placebo greater than or equal to that on Marplan.
2 All patients also received Marplan at doses <50 mg.
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