Prescription Drug Information: Meloxicam (Page 3 of 6)

Pediatrics

Pauciarticular and Polyarticular Course Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)

Three hundred and eighty-seven patients with pauciarticular and polyarticular course JRA were exposed to meloxicam with doses ranging from 0.125 to 0.375 mg/kg per day in three clinical trials. These studies consisted of two 12-week multicenter, double-blind, randomized trials (one with a 12-week open-label extension and one with a 40-week extension) and one 1-year open-label PK study. The adverse events observed in these pediatric studies with meloxicam were similar in nature to the adult clinical trial experience, although there were differences in frequency. In particular, the following most common adverse events, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and pyrexia, were more common in the pediatric than in the adult trials. Rash was reported in seven (<2%) patients receiving meloxicam. No unexpected adverse events were identified during the course of the trials. The adverse events did not demonstrate an age or gender-specific subgroup effect.

The following is a list of adverse drug reactions occurring in < 2% of patients receiving meloxicam in clinical trials involving approximately 16,200 patients.

Body as a Whole

allergic reaction, face edema, fatigue, fever, hot flushes, malaise, syncope,

weight decrease, weight increase

Cardiovascular

angina pectoris, cardiac failure, hypertension, hypotension, myocardial

infarction, vasculitis

Central and Peripheral Nervous System convulsions, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo
Gastrointestinal

colitis, dry mouth, duodenal ulcer, eructation, esophagitis, gastric ulcer,

gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, gastrointestinal hemorrhage,

hematemesis, hemorrhagic duodenal ulcer, hemorrhagic gastric ulcer,

intestinal perforation, melena, pancreatitis, perforated duodenal ulcer,

perforated gastric ulcer, stomatitis ulcerative

Heart Rate and Rhythm arrhythmia, palpitation, tachycardia
Hematologic leukopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia
Liver and Biliary System ALT increased, AST increased, bilirubinemia, GGT increased, hepatitis
Metabolic and Nutritional dehydration
Psychiatric

abnormal dreaming, anxiety, appetite increased, confusion, depression,

nervousness, somnolence

Respiratory asthma, bronchospasm, dyspnea
Skin and Appendages

alopecia, angioedema, bullous eruption, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus,

sweating increased, urticaria

Special Senses abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, taste perversion, tinnitus
Urinary System albuminuria, BUN increased, creatinine increased, hematuria, renal failure

6.2 Post Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of meloxicam. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions about whether to include an adverse event from spontaneous reports in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the event, (2) number of reports, or (3) strength of causal relationship to the drug. Adverse reactions reported in worldwide post marketing experience or the literature include: acute urinary retention; agranulocytosis; alterations in mood (such as mood elevation); anaphylactoid reactions including shock; erythema multiforme; exfoliative dermatitis; interstitial nephritis; jaundice; liver failure; Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

See also Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3).

7.1 ACE-inhibitors

NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking meloxicam concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

7.2 Aspirin

When meloxicam is administered with aspirin (1000 mg three times daily) to healthy volunteers, an increase the AUC (10%) and C max (24%) of meloxicam was noted. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs concomitant administration of meloxicam and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential for increased adverse effects.

Concomitant administration of low-dose aspirin with meloxicam may result in an increased rate of GI ulceration or other complications, compared to use of meloxicam alone. Meloxicam is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis.

7.3 Diuretics

Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. However, studies with furosemide agents and meloxicam have not demonstrated a reduction in natriuretic effect. Furosemide single and multiple dose pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are not affected by multiple doses of meloxicam. Nevertheless, during concomitant therapy with meloxicam, patients should be observed closely for signs of renal failure [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6) ], as well as to ensure diuretic efficacy.

7.4 Lithium

In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean pre-dose lithium concentration and AUC were increased by 21% in subjects receiving lithium doses ranging from 804 to 1072 mg twice daily with meloxicam 15 mg every day as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by meloxicam. Closely monitor patients on lithium treatment for signs of lithium toxicity when meloxicam is introduced, adjusted, or withdrawn.

7.5 Methotrexate

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. Therefore, NSAIDs may reduce the elimination of methotrexate, thereby enhancing the toxicity of methotrexate. Use caution when meloxicam is administered concomitantly with methotrexate [ see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].

7.6 Cyclosporine

Meloxicam, like other NSAIDs, may affect renal prostaglandins, thereby altering the renal toxicity of certain drugs. Therefore, concomitant therapy with meloxicam may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity. Use caution when meloxicam is administered concomitantly with cyclosporine.

7.7 Warfarin

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

Monitor anticoagulant activity, particularly in the first few days after initiating or changing meloxicam therapy in patients receiving warfarin or similar agents, since these patients are at an increased risk of bleeding than with the use of either drug alone. Use caution when administering meloxicam with warfarin since patients on warfarin may experience changes in INR and an increased risk of bleeding complications when a new medication is introduced [ see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C; Category D starting 30 weeks gestation

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Meloxicam crosses the placental barrier. Prior to 30 weeks gestation, use meloxicam during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Starting at 30 weeks gestation, avoid meloxicam and other NSAIDs, in pregnant women as premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus may occur. If this drug is used during this time period in pregnancy, inform the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9) and Patient Counseling Information ( 17.8) ].

Teratogenic Effects

Meloxicam was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats during fetal organogenesis at oral doses up to 4 mg/kg/day (2.6-fold greater than the maximum recommended human daily dose [MRHD] based on body surface area [BSA] comparison). Administration of meloxicam to pregnant rabbits throughout embryogenesis produced an increased incidence of septal defects of the heart at an oral dose of 60 mg/kg/day. The no effect level was 20 mg/kg/day (26-fold greater than the MRHD based on BSA conversion).

Nonteratogenic Effects

In rats and rabbits, embryolethality occurred at oral meloxicam doses of 1 mg/kg/day and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively (0.65-and 6.5-fold greater, respectively, than the MRHD based on BSA comparison) when administered throughout organogenesis.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

The effects of meloxicam on labor and delivery of pregnant women are unknown. Oral administration of meloxicam to pregnant rats during late gestation through lactation increased the incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased offspring survival at meloxicam doses of 0.125 mg/kg/day or greater (at least 12.5 times lower than the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparison).

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk; however, meloxicam was excreted in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations higher than those in plasma. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from meloxicam, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of meloxicam in pediatric JRA patients from 2 to 17 years of age has been evaluated in three clinical trials [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3), Adverse Reactions ( 6.1), and Clinical Studies ( 14.2) ]

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