Prescription Drug Information: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Page 4 of 8)

6.2 Other Adverse Reactions Observed in Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Clinical Trials

This section includes adverse reactions reported by methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets-treated subjects in double-blind trials that do not meet the criteria specified for Table 4 or Table 5 and all adverse reactions reported by methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets-treated subjects who participated in open-label and postmarketing clinical trials.

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Leukopenia

Eye Disorders: Accommodation disorder, Dry eye

Vascular Disorders: Hot flush

Gastrointestinal Disorders: Abdominal discomfort, Abdominal pain, Diarrhea

General Disorders and Administrative Site Conditions: Asthenia, Fatigue, Feeling jittery, Thirst

Infections and Infestations: Sinusitis

Investigations: Alanine aminotransferase increased, Blood pressure increased, Cardiac murmur, Heart rate increased

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Muscle spasms

Nervous System Disorders: Lethargy, Psychomotor hyperactivity, Somnolence

Psychiatric Disorders: Anger, Hypervigilance, Mood altered, Mood swings, Panic attack, Sleep disorder, Tearfulness, Tic

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Erectile dysfunction

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: Dyspnea

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Rash, Rash macular

Vascular Disorders: Hypertension

6.3 Discontinuation Due to Adverse Reactions

Adverse reactions in the 4 placebo-controlled studies of children and adolescents leading to discontinuation occurred in 2 methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients (0.6%) including depressed mood (1, 0.3%) and headache and insomnia (1, 0.3%), and 6 placebo patients (1.9%) including headache and insomnia (1, 0.3%), irritability (2, 0.6%), headache (1, 0.3%), psychomotor hyperactivity (1, 0.3%), and tic (1, 0.3%).

In the 2 placebo-controlled studies of adults, 25 methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients (6.0%) and 6 placebo patients (2.8%) discontinued due to an adverse reaction. Those events with an incidence of >0.5% in the methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients included anxiety (1.7%), irritability (1.4%), blood pressure increased (1.0%), and nervousness (0.7%). In placebo patients, blood pressure increased and depressed mood had an incidence of >0.5% (0.9%).

In the 11 open-label studies of children, adolescents, and adults, 266 methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients (7.0%) discontinued due to an adverse reaction. Those events with an incidence of >0.5% included insomnia (1.2%), irritability (0.8%), anxiety (0.7%), decreased appetite (0.7%), and tic (0.6%).

6.4 Tics

In a long-term uncontrolled study (n=432 children), the cumulative incidence of new onset of tics was 9% after 27 months of treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

In a second uncontrolled study (n=682 children) the cumulative incidence of new-onset tics was 1% (9/682 children). The treatment period was up to 9 months with mean treatment duration of 7.2 months.

6.5 Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Increases

In the laboratory classroom clinical trials in children (Studies 1 and 2), both methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily and methylphenidate three times daily increased resting pulse by an average of 2 to 6 bpm and produced average increases of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of roughly 1 to 4 mm Hg during the day, relative to placebo. In the placebo-controlled adolescent trial (Study 4), mean increases from baseline in resting pulse rate were observed with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo at the end of the double-blind phase (5 and 3 beats/minute, respectively). Mean increases from baseline in blood pressure at the end of the double-blind phase for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo-treated patients were 0.7 and 0.7 mm Hg (systolic) and 2.6 and 1.4 mm Hg (diastolic), respectively. In one placebo-controlled study in adults (Study 6), dose-dependent mean increases of 3.9 to 9.8 bpm from baseline in standing pulse rate were observed with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets at the end of the double-blind treatment vs. an increase of 2.7 beats/minute with placebo. Mean changes from baseline in standing blood pressure at the end of double-blind treatment ranged from 0.1 to 2.2 mm Hg (systolic) and ‑0.7 to 2.2 mm Hg (diastolic) for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and was 1.1 mm Hg (systolic) and -1.8 mm Hg (diastolic) for placebo. In a second placebo-controlled study in adults (Study 5), mean changes from baseline in resting pulse rate were observed for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo at the end of the double-blind treatment (3.6 and -1.6 beats/minute, respectively). Mean changes from baseline in blood pressure at the end of the double–blind treatment for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo-treated patients were -1.2 and -0.5 mm Hg (systolic) and 1.1 and 0.4 mm Hg (diastolic), respectively [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

6.6 Postmarketing Experience

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency:

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Pancytopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombocytopenic purpura

Cardiac Disorders: Angina pectoris, Bradycardia, Extrasystoles, Supraventricular tachycardia, Ventricular extrasystoles

Eye Disorders: Diplopia, Mydriasis, Visual impairment

General Disorders: Chest pain, Chest discomfort, Drug effect decreased, Hyperpyrexia, Therapeutic response decreased

Hepatobiliary disorders: Hepatocellular injury, Acute hepatic failure

Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions such as Angioedema, Anaphylactic reactions, Auricular swelling, Bullous conditions, Exfoliative conditions, Urticarias, Pruritus NEC, Rashes, Eruptions, and Exanthemas NEC

Investigations: Blood alkaline phosphatase increased, Blood bilirubin increased, Hepatic enzyme increased, Platelet count decreased, White blood cell count abnormal

Musculoskeletal, Connective Tissue and Bone Disorders: Arthralgia, Myalgia, Muscle twitching, Rhabdomyolysis

Nervous System Disorders: Convulsion, Grand mal convulsion, Dyskinesia, Serotonin syndrome in combination with serotonergic drugs

Psychiatric Disorders: Disorientation, Hallucination, Hallucination auditory, Hallucination visual, Mania, Logorrhea, Libido changes

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Priapism

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Alopecia, Erythema

Vascular Disorders: Raynaud’s phenomenon

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 MAO Inhibitors

Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in patients being treated (currently or within the preceding 2 weeks) with MAO inhibitors [see Contraindications (4.5)].

7.2 Vasopressor Agents

Because of possible increases in blood pressure, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used cautiously with vasopressor agents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.3 Coumarin Anticoagulants, Antidepressants, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Human pharmacologic studies have shown that methylphenidate may inhibit the metabolism of coumarin anticoagulants, anticonvulsants (eg, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone), and some antidepressants (tricyclics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Downward dose adjustment of these drugs may be required when given concomitantly with methylphenidate. It may be necessary to adjust the dosage and monitor plasma drug concentrations (or, in the case of coumarin, coagulation times), when initiating or discontinuing concomitant methylphenidate.

7.4 Risperidone

Combined use of methylphenidate with risperidone when there is a change, whether an increase or decrease, in dosage of either or both medications, may increase the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Monitor for signs of EPS.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C Methylphenidate has been shown to have teratogenic effects in rabbits when given in doses of 200 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 100 times and 40 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/kg and mg/m 2 basis, respectively.

A reproduction study in rats revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg/day, approximately 15-fold and 3-fold the maximum recommended human dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on a mg/kg and mg/m 2 basis, respectively. The approximate plasma exposure to methylphenidate plus its main metabolite PPAA in pregnant rats was 1-2 times that seen in trials in volunteers and patients with the maximum recommended dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets based on the AUC.

The safety of methylphenidate for use during human pregnancy has not been established. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

The effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether methylphenidate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is administered to a nursing woman.

In lactating female rats treated with a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg radiolabeled methylphenidate, radioactivity (representing methylphenidate and/or its metabolites) was observed in milk and levels were generally similar to those in plasma.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in children under six years, since safety and efficacy in this age group have not been established. Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets has not been studied in patients greater than 65 years of age.

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

9.1 Controlled Substance

Methylphenidate is a Schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.

9.2 Abuse

As noted in the Box Warning, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be given cautiously to patients with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism. Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. Frank psychotic episodes can occur, especially with parenteral abuse.

In two placebo-controlled human abuse potential studies, single oral doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets were compared to single oral doses of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and placebo in subjects with a history of recreational stimulant use to assess relative abuse potential. For the purpose of this assessment, the response for each of the subjective measures was defined as the maximum effect within the first 8 hours after dose administration.

In one study (n=40), both methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) and 60 mg IR MPH compared to placebo produced statistically significantly greater responses on the five subjective measures suggestive of abuse potential. In comparisons between the two active treatments, however, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) produced variable responses on positive subjective measures that were either statistically indistinguishable from (Abuse Potential, Drug Liking, Amphetamine, and Morphine Benzedrine Group [Euphoria]) or statistically less than (Stimulation – Euphoria) responses produced by 60 mg IR MPH.

In another study (n=49), both doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (54 mg and 108 mg) and both doses of IR MPH (50 mg and 90 mg) produced statistically significantly greater responses compared to placebo on the two primary scales used in the study (Drug Liking, Euphoria). When doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (54 mg and 108 mg) were compared to IR MPH (50 mg and 90 mg), respectively, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets produced statistically significantly lower subjective responses on these two scales than IR MPH. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) produced responses that were statistically indistinguishable from the responses on these two scales produced by IR MPH (50 mg). Differences in subjective responses to the respective doses should be considered in the context that only 22% of the total amount of methylphenidate in methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is available for immediate release from the drug overcoat [see System Components and Performance (11.1)].

Although these findings reveal a relatively lower response to methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on subjective measures suggestive of abuse potential compared to IR MPH at roughly equivalent total MPH doses, the relevance of these findings to the abuse potential of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in the community is unknown.

RxDrugLabels.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed prescription drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by RxDrugLabels.com. Every individual prescription drug label and package insert entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.

As a leading independent provider of trustworthy medication information, we source our database directly from the FDA's central repository of drug labels and package inserts under the Structured Product Labeling standard. RxDrugLabels.com provides the full prescription-only subset of the FDA's repository. Medication information provided here is not intended as a substitute for direct consultation with a qualified health professional.

Terms of Use | Copyright © 2023. All Rights Reserved.