Microgestin 1/20 is available in dispensers (NDC 51862-868-01) each containing 21 pale yellow tablets. Each pale yellow, biconvex, round tablet debossed with “L2″ on one side contains 1mg of norethindrone acetate and 20 mcg of ethinyl estradiol.
Microgestin 1/20 Tablets are available in the following configurations:
Carton of 1 NDC 51862-868-02
Carton of 3 NDC 51862-868-03
Carton of 6 NDC 51862-868-06
Store at 20 ˚C ~ 25 ˚C (68 ˚F~77 ˚F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
2. Humpel M, Nieuweboer B, Wendt H and Speck U: Investigations of pharmacokinetics of ethinyloestradiol to specific consideration of a possible first-pass effect in women. Contraception 1979; 19:421-432.
3. Back DJ, Breckenridge AM, Crawford FE, MacIver M, Orme ML’E, Rowe PH and Watts MJ. An investigation of the pharmacokinetics of ethynylestradiol in women using radioimmunoassay. Contraception 1979; 20:263-273.
4. Hammond GL, Lahteenmaki PLA, Lahteenmaki P and Luukkainen T. Distribution and percentages of non-protein bound contraceptive steroids in human serum. J Steriod Biochem 1982; 17:375-380.
5. Fotherby K. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of progestins in humans, in Pharmacology of the contraceptive steroids, Goldzieher JW, Fotherby K (eds), Raven Press, Ltd., New York, 1994; 99-126.
6. Goldzieher JW. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ethynyl estrogens, in Pharmacology of the contraceptive steroids, Goldzieher JW, Fotherby K (eds), Raven Press Ltd., New York, 1994; 127-151.
7. Hatcher RA, et al. 1998. Contraceptive Technology, Seventeenth Edition. New York: Irvington Publishers.
8. Stadel, B.V.: Oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease. (Pt. 1). New England Journal of Medicine, 305:612-618, 1981.
9. Stadel, B.V.: Oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease. (Pt. 2). New England Journal of Medicine, 305:672-677, 1981.
10. Adam, S.A., and M. Thorogood: Oral contraception and myocardial infarction revisited: The effects of new preparations and prescribing patterns. Brit. J. Obstet. and Gynec., 88:838-845, 1981.
11. Mann, J.I., and W.H. Inman: Oral contraceptives and death from myocardial infarction. Brit. Med. J., 2(5965): 245-248, 1975.
12. Mann, J.I., M.P. Vessey, M. Thorogood, and R. Doll: Myocardial infarction in young women with special reference to oral contraceptive practice. Brit. Med. J., 2(5956):241-245, 1975.
13. Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraception Study: Further analyses of mortality in oral contraceptive users. Lancet, 1:541-546, 1981.
14. Slone, D., S. Shapiro, D.W. Kaufman, L. Rosenberg, O.S. Miettinen, and P.D. Stolley: Risk of myocardial infarction in relation to current and discontinued use of oral contraceptives. N.E.J.M., 305:420-424, 1981.
15. Vessey, M.P.: Female hormones and vascular disease: An epidemiological overview. Brit. J. Fam. Plann., 6:1-12, 1980.
16. Russell-Briefel, R.G., T.M. Ezzati, R. Fulwood, J.A. Perlman, and R.S. Murphy: Cardiovascular risk status and oral contraceptive use, United States, 1976-80. Preventive Medicine, 15:352-362, 1986.
17. Goldbaum, G.M., J.S. Kendrick, G.C. Hogelin, and E.M. Gentry: The relative impact of smoking and oral contraceptive use on women in the United States. J.A.M.A., 258:1339-1342, 1987.
18. Layde, P.M., and V. Beral: Further analyses of mortality in oral contraceptive users: Royal College General Practitioners’ Oral Contraception Study. (Table 5) Lancet, 1:541-546, 1981.
19. Knopp, R.H.: Arteriosclerosis risk: The roles of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal estrogens. J. of Reprod. Med., 31(9) (Supplement): 913-921, 1986.
20. Krauss, R.M., S. Roy, D.R. Mishell, J. Casagrande, and M.C. Pike: Effects of two low-dose oral contraceptives on serum lipids and lipoproteins: Differential changes in high-density lipoproteins subclasses. Am. J. Obstet. Gyn., 145:446-452, 1983.
21. Wahl, P., C. Walden, R. Knopp, J. Hoover, R. Wallace, G. Heiss, and B. Rifkind: Effect of estrogen/progestin potency on lipid/lipoprotein cholesterol. N.E.J.M., 308:862-867, 1983.
22. Wynn, V., and R. Niththyananthan: The effect of progestin in combined oral contraceptives on serum lipids with special reference to high-density lipoproteins. Am. J. Obstet. and Gyn., 142:766-771, 1982.
23. Wynn, V., and I. Godsland: Effects of oral contraceptives on carbohydrate metabolism. J. Reprod. Medicine, 31 (9) (Supplement): 892-897, 1986.
24. LaRosa, J.C.: Atherosclerotic risk factors in cardiovascular disease. J. Reprod. Med., 31(9) (Supplement): 906-912, 1986.
25. Inman, W.H., and M.P. Vessey: Investigations of death from pulmonary, coronary, and cerebral thrombosis and embolism in women of child-bearing age. Brit. Med. J., 2(5599): 193-199, 1968.
26. Maguire, M.G., J. Tonascia, P.E. Sartwell, P.D. Stolley, and M.S. Tockman: Increased risk of thrombosis due to oral contraceptives: A further report. Am. J. Epidemiology, 110(2): 188-195, 1979.
27. Pettiti, D.B., J. Wingerd, F. Pellegrin, and S. Ramacharan: Risk of vascular disease in women: Smoking, oral contraceptives, noncontraceptive estrogens, and other factors. J.A.M.A., 242:1150-1154, 1979.
28. Vessey, M.P., and R. Doll: Investigation of relation between use of oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease. Brit. Med. J., 2(5599): 199-205, 1968.
29. Vessey, M.P., and R. Doll: Investigation of relation between use of oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease: A further report. Brit. Med. J., 2(5658): 651-657, 1969.
30. Porter, J.B., J.R. Hunter, D.A. Danielson, H. Jick, and A. Stergachis: Oral contraceptives and non-fatal vascular disease: Recent experience. Obstet. and Gyn., 59(3):299-302, 1982.
31. Vessey, M., R. Doll, R. Peto, B. Johnson, and P. Wiggins: A long-term follow-up study of women using different methods of contraception: An interim report. J. Biosocial. Sci., 8:375-427, 1976.
32. Royal College of General Practitioners: Oral contraceptives, venous thrombosis, and varicose veins. J. of Royal College of General Practitioners, 28:393-399, 1978.
33. Collaborative Group for the study of stroke in young women: Oral contraception and increased risk of cerebral ischemia or thrombosis. N.E.J.M., 288:871-878, 1973.
34. Petitti, D.B., and J. Wingerd: Use of oral contraceptives, cigarette smoking, and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Lancet, 2:234-236, 1978.
35. Inman, W.H.: Oral contraceptives and fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brit. Med. J., 2(6203): 1468-70, 1979.
36. Collaborative Group for the study of stroke in young women: Oral contraceptives and stroke in young women: Associated risk factors. J.A.M.A., 231:718-722, 1975.
37. Inman, W.H., M.P. Vessey, B. Westerholm, and A. Engelund: Thromboembolic disease and the steroidal content of oral contraceptives. A report to the Committee on Safety of Drugs. Brit. Med. J., 2:203¬ 209, 1970.
38. Meade, T.W., G. Greenberg, and S.G. Thompson: Progestogens and cardiovascular reactions associated with oral contraceptives and a comparison of the safety of 50-and 35-mcg oestrogen preparations. Brit. Med. J., 280(6224): 1157-1161, 1980.
39. Kay, C.R.: Progestogens and arterial disease: Evidence from the Royal College of General Practitioners’ study. Amer. J. Obstet. Gyn., 142:762-765, 1982.
40. Royal College of General Practitioners: Incidence of arterial disease among oral contraceptive users. J. Coll. Gen. Pract., 33:75-82, 1983.
41. Ory, H.W: Mortality associated with fertility and fertility control: 1983. Family Planning Perspectives, 15:50-56, 1983.
42. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Oral-contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer. N.E.J.M., 315: 405-411, 1986.
43. Pike, M.C., B.E. Henderson, M.D. Krailo, A. Duke, and S. Roy: Breast cancer in young women and use of oral contraceptives: Possible modifying effect of formulation and age at use. Lancet, 2:926-929, 1983.
44. Paul, C., D.G. Skegg, G.F.S. Spears, and J.M. Kaldor: Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: A national study. Brit. Med. J., 293:723-725, 1986.
45. Miller, D.R., L. Rosenberg, D.W. Kaufman, D. Schottenfeld, P.D. Stolley, and S. Shapiro: Breast cancer risk in relation to early oral contraceptive use. Obstet. Gynec., 68:863-868, 1986.
46. Olson, H., K.L. Olson, T.R. Moller, J. Ranstam, P. Holm: Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer in young women in Sweden (letter). Lancet, 2:748-749, 1985.
47. McPherson, K., M. Vessey, A. Neil, R. Doll, L. Jones, and M. Roberts: Early contraceptive use and breast cancer: Results of another case-control study. Brit. J. Cancer, 56: 653-660, 1987.
48. Huggins, G.R., and P.F. Zucker: Oral contraceptives and neoplasia: 1987 update. Fertil. Steril., 47:733-761, 1987.
49. McPherson, K., and J.O. Drife: The pill and breast cancer: Why the uncertainty? Brit. Med. J., 293:709-710, 1986.
50. Shapiro, S.: Oral contraceptives: Time to take stock. N.E.J.M., 315:450-451, 1987.
51. Ory, H., Z. Naib, S.B. Conger, R.A. Hatcher, and C.W. Tyler: Contraceptive choice and prevalence of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Am. J. Obstet. Gynec., 124:573-577, 1976.
52. Vessey, M.P., M. Lawless, K. McPherson, D. Yeates: Neoplasia of the cervix uteri and contraception: A possible adverse effect of the pill. Lancet, 2:930, 1983.
53. Brinton, L.A., G.R. Huggins, H.F. Lehman, K. Malli, D.A. Savitz, E. Trapido, J. Rosenthal, and R. Hoover: Long-term use of oral contraceptives and risk of invasive cervical cancer. Int. J. Cancer, 38:339-344, 1986.
54. WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives: Invasive cervical cancer and combined oral contraceptives. Brit. Med. J., 290:961-965, 1985.
55. Rooks, J.B., H.W. Ory, K.G. Ishak, L.T. Strauss, J.R. Greenspan, A.P. Hill, and C.W. Tyler: Epidemiology of hepatocellular adenoma: The role of oral contraceptive use. J.A.M.A., 242:644-648, 1979.
56. Bein, N.N., and H.S. Goldsmith: Recurrent massive hemorrhage from benign hepatic tumors secondary to oral contraceptives. Brit. J. Surg., 64:433-435, 1977.
57. Klatskin, G.: Hepatic tumors: Possible relationship to use of oral contraceptives. Gastroenterology, 73:386-394, 1977.
58. Henderson, B.E., S. Preston-Martin, H.A. Edmondson, R.L. Peters, and M.C. Pike: Hepatocellular carcinoma and oral contraceptives. Brit. J. Cancer, 48:437-440, 1983.
59. Neuberger, J., D. Forman, R. Doll, and R. Williams: Oral contraceptives and hepatocellular carcinoma. Brit. Med. J., 292:1355-1357, 1986.
60. Forman, D., T.J. Vincent, and R. Doll: Cancer of the liver and oral contraceptives. Brit. Med. J., 292: 1357-1361, 1986.
61. Harlap, S., and J. Eldor: Births following oral contraceptive failures. Obstet. Gynec., 55:447-452, 1980.
62. Savolainen, E., E. Saksela, and L. Saxen: Teratogenic hazards of oral contraceptives analyzed in a national malformation register. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec., 140:521-524, 1981.
63. Janerich, D.T., J.M. Piper, and D.M. Glebatis: Oral contraceptives and birth defects. Am. J. Epidemiology, 112:73-79, 1980.
64. Ferencz, C., G.M. Matanoski, P.D. Wilson, J.D. Rubin, C.A. Neill, and R. Gutberlet: Maternal hormone therapy and congenital heart disease. Teratology, 21:225-239, 1980.
65. Rothman, K.J., D.C. Fyler, A. Goldbatt, and M.B. Kreidberg: Exogenous hormones and other drug exposures of children with congenital heart disease. Am. J. Epidemiology, 109:433-439, 1979.
66. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program: Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolic disease, surgically confirmed gallbladder disease, and breast tumors. Lancet, 1:1399-1404, 1973.
67. Royal College of General Practitioners: Oral Contraceptives and Health. New York, Pittman, 1974, 100p.
68. Layde, P.M., M.P. Vessey, and D. Yeates: Risk of gallbladder disease: A cohort study of young women attending family planning clinics. J. of Epidemiol. and Comm. Health, 36: 274-278, 1982.
69. Rome Group for the Epidemiology and Prevention of Cholelithiasis (GREPCO): Prevalence of gallstone disease in an Italian adult female population. Am. J. Epidemiol., 119:796-805, 1984.
70. Strom, B.L., R.T. Tamragouri, M.L. Morse, E.L. Lazar, S.L. West, P. D. Stolley, and J.K. Jones: Oral contraceptives and other risk factors for gallbladder disease. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 39:335-341, 1986.
71. Wynn, V., P.W. Adams, I.F. Godsland, J. Melrose, R. Niththyananthan, N.W. Oakley, and A. Seedj: Comparison of effects of different combined oral-contraceptive formulations on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Lancet, 1:1045-1049, 1979.
72. Wynn, V.: Effect of progesterone and progestins on carbohydrate metabolism. In Progesterone and Progestin. Edited by C.W. Bardin, E. Milgrom, P. Mauvis-Jarvis. New York, Raven Press, pp. 395-410, 1983.
73. Perlman, J.A., R. G. Roussell-Briefel, T.M. Ezzati, and G. Lieberknecht: Oral glucose tolerance and the potency of oral contraceptive progestogens. J. Chronic Dis., 38:857-864, 1985.
74. Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraception Study: Effect on hypertension and benign breast disease of progestogen component in combined oral contraceptives. Lancet, 1:624, 1977.
75. Fisch, I.R., and J. Frank: Oral contraceptives and blood pressure. J.A.M.A., 237:2499-2503, 1977.
76. Laragh, A.J.: Oral contraceptive induced hypertension: Nine years later. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 126:141-147, 1976.
77. Ramcharan, S., E. Peritz, F.A. Pellegrin, and W.T. Williams: Incidence of hypertension in the Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study cohort. In Pharmacology of Steroid Contraceptive Drugs. Edited by S. Garattini and H.W. Berendes. New York, Raven Press, pp. 277-288, 1977. (Monographs of the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan.)
78. Back DJ, Orme ML’E. Drug interactions, in Pharmacology of the contracepive steroids. Goldzieher JW, Fotherby K (eds), Raven Press, Ltd., New York, 1994, 407-425.
79. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Oral contraceptive use and the risk of ovarian cancer. J.A.M.A., 249:1596-1599, 1983.
80. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Combination oral contraceptive use and the risk of endometrial cancer. J.A.M.A., 257:796-800, 1987.
81. Ory, H.W.: Functional ovarian cysts and oral contraceptives: Negative association confirmed surgically. J.A.M.A., 228:68-69, 1974.
82. Ory, H.W., P. Cole, B. Macmahon, and R. Hoover: Oral contraceptives and reduced risk of benign breast disease. N.E.J.M., 294:41-422, 1976.
83. Ory, H.W.: The noncontraceptive health benefits from oral contraceptive use. Fam. Plann. Perspectives, 14:182-184, 1982.
84. Ory, H.W., J.D. Forrest, and R. Lincoln: Making Choices: Evaluating the health risks and benefits of birth control methods. New York, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, p.1, 1983.
85. Miller, D.R., L. Rosenberg, D.W. Kaufman, P. Stolley, M.E. Warshauer, and S. Shapiro: Breast cancer before age 45 and oral contraceptive use: new findings. Am. J. Epidemiol., 129:269-280, 1989.
86. Kay, C.R., and P.C. Hannaford: Breast cancer and the pill: a further report from the Royal College of General Practitioners Oral Contraception Study. Br. J. Cancer, 58:675-680, 1988.
87. Stadel, B.V., S. Lai, J.J. Schlesselman, and P. Murray: Oral contraceptives and premenopausal breast cancer in nulliparous women. Contraception, 38:287-299, 1988.
88. UK National Case—Control Study Group: Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk in young women. Lancet, 973-982, 1989.
89. Romieu, I., W.C. Willett, G.A. Colditz, M.J. Stampfer, B. Rosner, C.H. Hennekens, and F.E. Speizer: Prospective study of oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer in women. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 81:1313-1321, 1989.
The patient labeling for oral contraceptive drug products is set forth below.
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