Following a single 15-mg oral dose of mirtazapine, the oral clearance of mirtazapine in patients with hepatic impairment was decreased by approximately 30%, compared to subjects with normal hepatic function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13, 5.15), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Mirtazapine (30 mg daily) at steady state caused a statistically significant increase (0.2) in the International Normalized Ratio (INR) in subjects treated with warfarin [see Drug Interactions (7)].
The risk of QT prolongation and/or ventricular arrhythmias (e.g., Torsades de Pointes) may be increased with concomitant use of medicines which prolong the QTc interval (e.g., some antipsychotics and antibiotics) and in mirtazapine overdose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2), Drug Interactions (7), and Overdosage (10)].
In healthy male subjects (n = 18), phenytoin (200 mg daily, at steady state) increased mirtazapine (30 mg daily, at steady state) clearance about 2-fold, resulting in a decrease in average plasma mirtazapine concentrations of 45% [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Mirtazapine did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin.
In healthy male subjects (n = 24), carbamazepine (400 mg twice a day, at steady state) increased mirtazapine (15 mg twice a day, at steady state) clearance about 2-fold, resulting in a decrease in average plasma mirtazapine concentrations of 60% [see Drug Interactions (7)].
In healthy male subjects (n = 12), when cimetidine, a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, given at 800 mg b.i.d. at steady state was coadministered with mirtazapine (30 mg daily) at steady state, the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of mirtazapine increased more than 50% [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Mirtazapine did not cause relevant changes in the pharmacokinetics of cimetidine.
In healthy male Caucasian subjects (n = 24), coadministration of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole (200 mg b.i.d. for 6.5 days) increased the peak plasma levels and the AUC of a single 30 mg dose of mirtazapine by approximately 40% and 50%, respectively [see Drug Interactions (7)].
In healthy, CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer patients (n = 32), amitriptyline (75 mg daily), at steady state, did not cause relevant changes to the pharmacokinetics of steady state mirtazapine (30 mg daily); mirtazapine also did not cause relevant changes to the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline.
In healthy CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects (n = 24), mirtazapine (30 mg/day), at steady state, did not cause relevant changes in the pharmacokinetics of steady state paroxetine (40 mg/day), a CYP2D6 inhibitor.
No relevant clinical effects or significant changes in pharmacokinetics have been observed in healthy male subjects on concurrent treatment with lithium 600 mg/day for 10 days at steady state and a single 30 mg dose of mirtazapine. The effects of higher doses of lithium on the pharmacokinetics of mirtazapine are unknown.
Mirtazapine (30 mg daily) at steady state did not influence the pharmacokinetics of risperidone (up to 3 mg twice a day) in subjects (n = 6) in need of treatment with an antipsychotic and antidepressant drug.
Concomitant administration of alcohol (equivalent to 60 g) had a minimal effect on plasma levels of mirtazapine (15 mg) in 6 healthy male subjects. However, the impairment of cognitive and motor skills produced by mirtazapine were shown to be additive with those produced by alcohol.
Concomitant administration of diazepam (15 mg) had a minimal effect on plasma levels of mirtazapine (15 mg) in 12 healthy subjects. However, the impairment of motor skills produced by mirtazapine has been shown to be additive with those caused by diazepam.
Carcinogenicity studies were conducted with mirtazapine given in the diet at doses of 2, 20, and 200 mg/kg/day to mice and 2, 20, and 60 mg/kg/day to rats. The highest doses used are approximately 20 and 12 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 45 mg/day, based on body surface area (mg/m2) in mice and rats, respectively. There was an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma in male mice at the high dose. In rats, there was an increase in hepatocellular adenoma in females at the mid and high doses and in hepatocellular tumors and thyroid follicular adenoma/cystadenoma and carcinoma in males at the high dose.
Mirtazapine was not mutagenic or clastogenic and did not induce general DNA damage as determined in several genotoxicity tests: Ames test, in vitro gene mutation assay in Chinese hamster V 79 cells, in vitro sister chromatid exchange assay in cultured rabbit lymphocytes, in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test in rats, and unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in HeLa cells.
In a fertility study in rats, mirtazapine was given at doses up to 100 mg/kg [20 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface area (mg/m2)]. Mating and conception were not affected by the drug, but estrous cycling was disrupted at doses that were 3 or more times the MRHD, and pre-implantation losses occurred at 20 times the MRHD.
The efficacy of mirtazapine as a treatment for major depressive disorder was established in 4 placebo-controlled, 6-week trials in adult outpatients meeting DSM-III criteria for major depressive disorder. Patients were titrated with mirtazapine from a dose range of 5 mg to 35 mg/day. The mean mirtazapine dose for patients who completed these 4 studies ranged from 21 to 32 mg/day. Overall, these studies demonstrated mirtazapine to be superior to placebo on at least 3 of the following 4 measures: 21-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) total score; HDRS Depressed Mood Item; CGI Severity score; and Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Superiority of mirtazapine over placebo was also found for certain factors of the HDRS, including anxiety/somatization factor and sleep disturbance factor.
Examination of age and gender subsets of the population did not reveal any differential responsiveness on the basis of these subgroupings.
In a longer-term study, patients meeting (DSM-IV) criteria for major depressive disorder who had responded during an initial 8 to 12 weeks of acute treatment on mirtazapine were randomized to continuation of mirtazapine or placebo for up to 40 weeks of observation for relapse. Response during the open phase was defined as having achieved a HAM-D 17 total score of ≤ 8 and a CGI-Improvement score of 1 or 2 at 2 consecutive visits beginning with week 6 of the 8 to 12 weeks in the open-label phase of the study. Relapse during the double-blind phase was determined by the individual investigators. Patients receiving continued mirtazapine treatment experienced significantly lower relapse rates over the subsequent 40 weeks compared to those receiving placebo. This pattern was demonstrated in both male and female patients.
Mirtazapine Tablets, USP are available containing 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg of mirtazapine, USP.
The 15 mg tablets are beige, film-coated, round, scored tablets debossed with M over 515 on one side of the tablet and bisected by a score on the other side. They are available as follows:
Overbagged with 10 tablets per bag, NDC 55154-5355-0
Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Protect from light and moisture.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.
PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: Advise patients and caregivers to look for the emergence of suicidality, especially early during treatment and when the dosage is adjusted up or down, and instruct them to report such symptoms to the healthcare provider [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Agranulocytosis: Advise patients to contact their physician if they experience fever, chills, sore throat, mucous membrane ulceration, flu-like complaints, or other symptoms that might suggest infection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Serotonin Syndrome: Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome, particularly with the concomitant use of mirtazapine tablets with other serotonergic drugs including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, St. John’s Wort, and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid). Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider or report to the emergency room if they experience signs or symptoms of serotonin syndrome [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7)].
QT Prolongation and Torsades de Pointes: Inform patients to consult their physician immediately if they feel faint, lose consciousness, or have heart palpitations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7), Overdosage (10)]. Advise patients to inform physicians that they are taking mirtazapine tablets before any new drug is taken.
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS): Advise patients to report to their healthcare provider at the earliest onset of fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, or other signs and symptoms suggestive of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Somnolence: Advise patients that mirtazapine tablets may impair judgment, thinking, and particularly, motor skills, because of its prominent sedative effect. Caution patients about performing activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating hazardous machinery or operating a motor vehicle, until they are reasonably certain that mirtazapine tablets therapy does not adversely affect their ability to engage in such activities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Activation of Mania/Hypomania: Advise patients and their caregivers to observe for signs of activation of mania/hypomania and instruct them to report such symptoms to the healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Discontinuation Syndrome: Advise patients not to abruptly discontinue mirtazapine tablets and to discuss any tapering regimen with their healthcare provider. Adverse reactions can occur when mirtazapine tablets are discontinued [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].
Allergic Reactions: Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they develop an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, swelling, or difficulty breathing [see Contraindications (4), Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
- Advise patients to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during mirtazapine tablets therapy.
- Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to mirtazapine tablets during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Lactation: Advise patients to notify their physician if they are breastfeeding an infant [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Angle-Closure Glaucoma: Patients should be advised that taking mirtazapine can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle-closure glaucoma. Pre-existing glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle-closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy. Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle-closure glaucoma. Patients may wish to be examined to determine whether they are susceptible to angle-closure, and have a prophylactic procedure (e.g., iridectomy), if they are susceptible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
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