MODAFINIL- modafinil tablet
Modafinil tablets are indicated to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), or shift work disorder (SWD).
Limitations of Use
In OSA, modafinil tablets are indicated to treat excessive sleepiness and not as treatment for the underlying obstruction. If continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for a patient, a maximal effort to treat with CPAP for an adequate period of time should be made prior to initiating and during treatment with modafinil tablets for excessive sleepiness.
The recommended dosage of modafinil tablets for patients with narcolepsy or OSA is 200 mg taken orally once a day as a single dose in the morning.
Doses up to 400 mg/day, given as a single dose, have been well tolerated, but there is no consistent evidence that this dose confers additional benefit beyond that of the 200 mg/day dose [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.1, 14.2)].
The recommended dosage of modafinil tablets for patients with SWD is 200 mg taken orally once a day as a single dose approximately 1 hour prior to the start of their work shift.
In patients with severe hepatic impairment, the dosage of modafinil tablets should be reduced to one-half of that recommended for patients with normal hepatic function [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Consideration should be given to the use of lower doses and close monitoring in geriatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
100 mg – white to off white colored capsule shaped tablets debossed with ‘M’ on one side and 100 MG on other side.
200 mg – white to off white colored capsule shaped tablets debossed with ‘M’ on one side and 200 MG on other side with a breakline between 200 and MG.
Serious rash requiring hospitalization and discontinuation of treatment has been reported in association with the use of modafinil.
In clinical trials of modafinil, the incidence of rash resulting in discontinuation was approximately 0.8% (13 per 1,585) in pediatric patients (age <17 years); these rashes included 1 case of possible Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and 1 case of apparent multi-organ hypersensitivity reaction. Several of the cases were associated with fever and other abnormalities (e.g., vomiting, leukopenia). The median time to rash that resulted in discontinuation was 13 days. No such cases were observed among 380 pediatric patients who received placebo. Modafinil is not approved for use in pediatric patients for any indication [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4)].
Rare cases of serious or life-threatening rash, including SJS, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), and Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have been reported in adults and children in worldwide postmarketing experience. The reporting rate of TEN and SJS associated with modafinil use, which is generally accepted to be an underestimate due to underreporting, exceeds the background incidence rate. Estimates of the background incidence rate for these serious skin reactions in the general population range between 1 to 2 cases per million-person years.
There are no factors that are known to predict the risk of occurrence or the severity of rash associated with modafinil. Nearly all cases of serious rash associated with modafinil occurred within 1 to 5 weeks after treatment initiation. However, isolated cases have been reported after prolonged treatment (e.g., 3 months). Accordingly, duration of therapy cannot be relied upon as a means to predict the potential risk heralded by the first appearance of a rash.
Although benign rashes also occur with modafinil, it is not possible to reliably predict which rashes will prove to be serious. Accordingly, modafinil should be discontinued at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. Discontinuation of treatment may not prevent a rash from becoming life-threatening or permanently disabling or disfiguring.
Angioedema and hypersensitivity (with rash, dysphagia, and bronchospasm), were observed in patients treated with armodafinil, the R enantiomer of modafinil (which is the racemic mixture). No such cases were observed in modafinil clinical trials. However, angioedema has been reported in postmarketing experience with modafinil. Patients should be advised to discontinue therapy and immediately report to their physician any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema or anaphylaxis (e.g., swelling of face, eyes, lips, tongue or larynx; difficulty in swallowing or breathing; hoarseness).
Multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions, including at least one fatality in postmarketing experience, have occurred in close temporal association (median time to detection 13 days: range 4 to 33) to the initiation of modafinil.
Although there have been a limited number of reports, multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions may result in hospitalization or be life-threatening. There are no factors that are known to predict the risk of occurrence or the severity of multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions. Signs and symptoms of this disorder were diverse; however, patients typically, although not exclusively, presented with fever and rash associated with other organ system involvement. Other associated manifestations included myocarditis, hepatitis, liver function test abnormalities, hematological abnormalities (e.g., eosinophilia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), pruritus, and asthenia. Because multi-organ hypersensitivity is variable in its expression, other organ system symptoms and signs, not noted here, may occur.
If a multi-organ hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, modafinil should be discontinued. Although there are no case reports to indicate cross‑sensitivity with other drugs that produce this syndrome, the experience with drugs associated with multi-organ hypersensitivity would indicate this to be a possibility.
Patients with abnormal levels of sleepiness who take modafinil should be advised that their level of wakefulness may not return to normal. Patients with excessive sleepiness, including those taking modafinil, should be frequently reassessed for their degree of sleepiness and, if appropriate, advised to avoid driving or any other potentially dangerous activity. Prescribers should also be aware that patients may not acknowledge sleepiness or drowsiness until directly questioned about drowsiness or sleepiness during specific activities.
Psychiatric adverse reactions have been reported in patients treated with modafinil.
In the adult modafinil controlled trials, psychiatric symptoms resulting in treatment discontinuation (at a frequency ≥0.3%) and reported more often in patients treated with modafinil compared to those treated with placebo were anxiety (1%), nervousness (1%), insomnia (<1%), confusion (<1%), agitation (<1%), and depression (<1%).
Postmarketing adverse reactions associated with the use of modafinil have included mania, delusions, hallucinations, suicidal ideation, and aggression, some resulting in hospitalization. Many, but not all, patients had a prior psychiatric history. One healthy male volunteer developed ideas of reference, paranoid delusions, and auditory hallucinations in association with multiple daily 600 mg doses of modafinil (three times the recommended dose) and sleep deprivation. There was no evidence of psychosis 36 hours after drug discontinuation.
Caution should be exercised when modafinil is given to patients with a history of psychosis, depression, or mania. Consideration should be given to the possible emergence or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms in patients treated with modafinil. If psychiatric symptoms develop in association with modafinil administration, consider discontinuing modafinil.
Although modafinil has not been shown to produce functional impairment, any drug affecting the CNS may alter judgment, thinking or motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating an automobile or other hazardous machinery until it is reasonably certain that modafinil therapy will not adversely affect their ability to engage in such activities.
In modafinil clinical studies, cardiovascular adverse reactions, including chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, and transient ischemic T-wave changes on ECG occurred in three subjects in association with mitral valve prolapse or left ventricular hypertrophy. In a Canadian clinical trial, a 35 year old obese narcoleptic male with a prior history of syncopal episodes experienced a 9 second episode of asystole after 27 days of modafinil treatment (300 mg/day in divided doses). Modafinil is not recommended in patients with a history of left ventricular hypertrophy or in patients with mitral valve prolapse who have experienced the mitral valve prolapse syndrome when previously receiving CNS stimulants. Findings suggestive of mitral valve prolapse syndrome include but are not limited to ischemic ECG changes, chest pain, or arrhythmia. If new onset of any of these findings occurs, consider cardiac evaluation. Consider increased monitoring in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable angina.
Blood pressure monitoring in short term (≤ 3 months) controlled trials showed no clinically significant changes in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients receiving modafinil as compared to placebo. However, a retrospective analysis of the use of antihypertensive medication in these studies showed that a greater proportion of patients on modafinil required new or increased use of antihypertensive medications (2.4%) compared to patients on placebo (0.7%). The differential use was slightly larger when only studies in OSA were included, with 3.4% of patients on modafinil and 1.1% of patients on placebo requiring such alterations in the use of antihypertensive medication. Increased monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure may be appropriate in patients on modafinil. Caution should be exercised when prescribing modafinil to patients with known cardiovascular disease.
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Serious Rash, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Angioedema and Anaphylaxis Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Multi-organ Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Persistent Sleepiness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Psychiatric Symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machinery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Cardiovascular Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
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