Prescription Drug Information: Mycophenolic Acid

MYCOPHENOLIC ACID- mycophenolate sodium tablet, delayed release
CONCORD BIOTECH LIMITED

WARNING:EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY, MALIGNANCIES, AND SERIOUS INFECTIONS

  • Use during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of pregnancy loss and congenital malformations. Avoid if safer treatment options are available. Females of reproductive potential must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3) ].
  • Increased risk of development of lymphoma and other malignancies, particularly of the skin, due to immunosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].
  • Increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoal infections, including opportunistic infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4 , 5.5 ) ].
  • Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of organ transplant patients should prescribe mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets. Patients receiving mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Prophylaxis of Organ Rejection in Kidney Transplant

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult patients receiving a kidney transplant.

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in pediatric patients 5 years of age and older who are at least 6 months post kidney transplant.

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are to be used in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

1.2 Limitations of Use

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) tablets and capsules should not be used interchangeably without physician supervision because the rate of absorption following the administration of these two products is not equivalent.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosage in Adult Kidney Transplant Patients

The recommended dose of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets is 720 mg administered twice daily (1440 mg total daily dose).

2.2 Dosage in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients

The recommended dose of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets in conversion (at least 6 months post-transplant) pediatric patients age 5 years and older is 400 mg/m2 body surface area (BSA) administered twice daily (up to a maximum dose of 720 mg administered twice daily).

2.3 Administration

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets should be taken on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after food intake [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets should not be crushed, chewed, or cut prior to ingesting. The tablets should be swallowed whole in order to maintain the integrity of the enteric coating.

Pediatric patients with a BSA of 1.19 m2 to 1.58 m2 may be dosed either with three mycophenolic acid delayed-release 180 mg tablets, or one 180 mg tablet plus one 360 mg tablet twice daily (1080 mg daily dose). Patients with a BSA of >1.58 m2 may be dosed either with four mycophenolic acid delayed-release 180 mg tablets, or two mycophenolic acid delayed-release 360 mg tablets twice daily (1440 mg daily dose). Pediatric doses for patients with BSA <1.19 m2 cannot be accurately administered using currently available formulations of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are available as 360 mg and 180 mg tablets.

Table 1: Description of Mycophenolic acid Delayed-Release Tablets
Dosage Strength 360 mg tablet 180 mg tablet
Active ingredient mycophenolic acid as mycophenolate sodium mycophenolic acid as mycophenolate sodium
Appearance Pink to light pink colored, enteric coated, ovaloid biconvex tablet Lime green colored, enteric coated, round biconvex tablet
Imprint “C2″on one side and plain on other side “C1″on one side and plain on other side

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to mycophenolate sodium, mycophenolic acid (MPA), mycophenolate mofetil, or to any of its excipients. Reactions like rash, pruritus, hypotension, and chest pain have been observed in clinical trials and post marketing reports [see Adverse Reactions (6) ].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Use of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of congenital malformations, especially external ear and other facial abnormalities, including cleft lip and palate, and anomalies of the distal limbs, heart, esophagus, kidney, and nervous system. Females of reproductive potential must be aware of these risks and must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning. Avoid use of Mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets during pregnancy if safer treatment options are available [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

5.2 Management of Immunosuppression

Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of organ transplant patients should prescribe mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets. Patients receiving the drug should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physicians responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient [see Boxed Warning ].

5.3 Lymphoma and Other Malignancies

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets, are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin [see Adverse Reactions (6) ]. The risk appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than to the use of any specific agent.

As usual for patients with increased risk for skin cancer, exposure to sunlight and UV light should be limited by wearing protective clothing and using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a high protection factor.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) has been reported in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients. The majority of PTLD events appear related to Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection. The risk of PTLD appears greatest in those individuals who are EBV seronegative, a population which includes many young children.

5.4 Serious Infections

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets, are at increased risk of developing bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoal infections, and new or reactivated viral infections, including opportunistic infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]. These infections may lead to serious, including fatal outcomes. Because of the danger of oversuppression of the immune system which can increase susceptibility to infection, combination immunosuppressant therapy should be used with caution.

5.5 New or Reactivated Viral Infections

Polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN), JC virus associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, reactivation of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) have been reported in patients treated with immunosuppressants, including the mycophenolic acid (MPA) derivatives mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets and MMF. Reduction in immunosuppression should be considered for patients who develop evidence of new or reactivated viral infections. Physicians should also consider the risk that reduced immunosuppression represents to the functioning allograft.

PVAN, especially due to BK virus infection, is associated with serious outcomes, including deteriorating renal function and renal graft loss. Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for PVAN.

PML, which is sometimes fatal, commonly presents with hemiparesis, apathy, confusion, cognitive deficiencies, and ataxia. Risk factors for PML include treatment with immunosuppressant therapies and impairment of immune function. In immunosuppressed patients, physicians should consider PML in the differential diagnosis in patients reporting neurological symptoms and consultation with a neurologist should be considered as clinically indicated.

The risk of CMV viremia and CMV disease is highest among transplant recipients seronegative for CMV at time of transplant who receive a graft from a CMV seropositive donor. Therapeutic approaches to limiting CMV disease exist and should be routinely provided. Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for CMV disease [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].

Viral reactivation has been reported in patients infected with HBV or HCV. Monitoring infected patients for clinical and laboratory signs of active HBV or HCV infection is recommended.

5.6 Blood Dyscrasias, Including Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with MPA derivatives in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. The mechanism for MPA derivatives induced PRCA is unknown; the relative contribution of other immunosuppressants and their combinations in an immunosuppressive regimen is also unknown. In some cases, PRCA was found to be reversible with dose reduction or cessation of therapy with MPA derivatives. In transplant patients, however, reduced immunosuppression may place the graft at risk. Changes to mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablet therapy should only be undertaken under appropriate supervision in transplant recipients in order to minimize the risk of graft rejection. Patients receiving mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets should be monitored for blood dyscrasias (e.g., neutropenia or anemia). The development of neutropenia may be related to mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets itself, concomitant medications, viral infections, or some combination of these reactions. Complete blood count should be performed weekly during the first month, twice monthly for the second and the third month of treatment, then monthly through the first year. If blood dyscrasias occur [neutropenia develops (ANC < 1.3 × 103 /mcL) or anemia], dosing with mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets should be interrupted or the dose reduced, appropriate tests performed, and the patient managed accordingly.

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