NIACIN- niacin tablet, extended release
Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hyperlipidemia. Niacin therapy is indicated as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate.
- Niacin extended-release tablets are indicated to reduce elevated TC, LDL-C, Apo B and TG levels, and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia.
- In patients with a history of myocardial infarction and hyperlipidemia, niacin is indicated to reduce the risk of recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction.
- In patients with a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hyperlipidemia, niacin, in combination with a bile acid binding resin, is indicated to slow progression or promote regression of atherosclerotic disease.
- Niacin extended-release tablets in combination with a bile acid binding resin is indicated to reduce elevated TC and LDL-C levels in adult patients with primary hyperlipidemia.
- Niacin is also indicated as adjunctive therapy for treatment of adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who present a risk of pancreatitis and who do not respond adequately to a determined dietary effort to control them.
Limitations of Use
Addition of niacin extended-release tablets did not reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality among patients treated with simvastatin in a large, randomized controlled trial (AIM-HIGH) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] .
Niacin extended-release tablets should be taken at bedtime, after a low-fat snack, and doses should be individualized according to patient response. Therapy with niacin extended-release tablets must be initiated at 500 mg at bedtime in order to reduce the incidence and severity of side effects which may occur during early therapy. The recommended dose escalation is shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Recommended Dosing
Niacin Extended-Release Tablets Dosage
1 to 4
1 Niacin Extended-Release Tablet 500 mg at bedtime
5 to 8
1 Niacin Extended-Release Tablet 1000 mg or
2 Niacin Extended-Release Tablets 500 mg at bedtime
3 Niacin Extended-Release Tablets 500 mg at bedtime
2 Niacin Extended-Release Tablets 1000 mg or
4 Niacin Extended-Release Tablets 500 mg at bedtime
* After Week 8, titrate to patient response and tolerance. If response to 1000 mg daily is inadequate, increase dose to 1500 mg daily; may subsequently increase dose to 2000 mg daily. Daily dose should not be increased more than 500 mg in a 4-week period, and doses above 2000 mg daily are not recommended. Women may respond at lower doses than men.
The daily dosage of niacin extended-release tablets should not be increased by more than 500 mg in any 4–week period. The recommended maintenance dose is 1000 mg (two 500 mg tablets or one 1000 mg tablet) to 2000 mg (two 1000 mg tablets or four 500 mg tablets) once daily at bedtime. Doses greater than 2000 mg daily are not recommended. Women may respond at lower niacin extended-release tablets doses than men [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] .
Single-dose bioavailability studies have demonstrated that two of the 500 mg and one of the 1000 mg tablet strengths are interchangeable but three of the 500 mg and two of the 750 mg tablet strengths are not interchangeable.
Tolerance to flushing develops rapidly over the course of several weeks. Flushing, pruritus, and gastrointestinal distress are also greatly reduced by slowly increasing the dose of niacin and avoiding administration on an empty stomach. Concomitant alcoholic, hot drinks or spicy foods may increase the side effects of flushing and pruritus and should be avoided around the time of niacin extended-release tablets ingestion.
Equivalent doses of niacin extended-release tablets should not be substituted for sustained-release (modified-release, timed-release) niacin preparations or immediate-release (crystalline) niacin [see Warnings and Precautions (5)] . Patients previously receiving other niacin products should be started with the recommended niacin extended-release tablets titration schedule (see Table 1), and the dose should subsequently be individualized based on patient response.
If niacin extended-release tablets therapy is discontinued for an extended period, reinstitution of therapy should include a titration phase (see Table 1).
Niacin extended-release tablets should be taken whole and should not be broken, crushed or chewed before swallowing.
Dosage in Patients with Renal or Hepatic Impairment
Use of niacin extended-release tablets in patients with renal or hepatic impairment has not been studied. Niacin extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with significant or unexplained hepatic dysfunction. Niacin extended-release tablets should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5)] .
- 500 mg light orange to orange colored, round shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with ‘AN 321’ on one side and plain on the other side.
- 1000 mg light orange to orange colored, capsule shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with ‘AN 323’ on one side and plain on the other side
Niacin extended-release tablets are contraindicated in the following conditions:
- Active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Patients with active peptic ulcer disease
- Patients with arterial bleeding
- Hypersensitivity to niacin or any component of this medication [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]
Niacin extended-release preparations should not be substituted for equivalent doses of immediate-release (crystalline) niacin. For patients switching from immediate-release niacin to niacin extended-release, therapy with niacin extended-release should be initiated with low doses (i.e., 500 mg at bedtime) and the niacin extended-release dose should then be titrated to the desired therapeutic response [see Dosage and Administration (2)] .
Caution should also be used when niacin is used in patients with unstable angina or in the acute phase of an MI, particularly when such patients are also receiving vasoactive drugs such as nitrates, calcium channel blockers, or adrenergic blocking agents.
Niacin is rapidly metabolized by the liver, and excreted through the kidneys. Niacin is contraindicated in patients with significant or unexplained hepatic impairment [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] and should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment. Patients with a past history of jaundice, hepatobiliary disease, or peptic ulcer should be observed closely during niacin therapy.
Niacin extended-release has not been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality among patients already treated with a statin.
The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides:
Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial was a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 3414 patients with stable, previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Mean baseline lipid levels were LDL-C 74 mg/dL, HDL-C 35 mg/dL, non-HDL-C 111 mg/dL and median triglyceride level of 163 to 177 mg/dL. Ninety-four percent of patients were on background statin therapy prior to entering the trial. All participants received simvastatin, 40 to 80 mg per day, plus ezetimibe 10 mg per day if needed, to maintain an LDL-C level of 40 to 80 mg/dL, and were randomized to receive niacin extended-release 1500 to 2000 mg/day (n=1718) or matching placebo (IR Niacin, 100 to 150 mg, n=1696). On-treatment lipid changes at two years for LDL-C were -12% for the simvastatin plus niacin extended-release group and -5.5% for the simvastatin plus placebo group. HDL-C increased by 25% to 42 mg/dL in the simvastatin plus niacin extended-release group and by 9.8% to 38 mg/dL in the simvastatin plus placebo group (P<0.001). Triglyceride levels decreased by 28.6% in the simvastatin plus niacin extended-release group and by 8.1% in the simvastatin plus placebo group. The primary outcome was an ITT composite of the first study occurrence of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization procedures. The trial was stopped after a mean follow-up period of 3 years owing to a lack of efficacy. The primary outcome occurred in 282 patients in the simvastatin plus niacin extended-release group (16.4%) and in 274 patients in the simvastatin plus placebo group (16.2%) (HR 1.02 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.21], P=0.79. In an ITT analysis, there were 42 cases of first occurrence of ischemic stroke reported, 27 (1.6%) in the simvastatin plus niacin extended-release group and 15 (0.9%) in the simvastatin plus placebo group, a non-statistically significant result (HR 1.79, [95%CI = 0.95 to 3.36], p=0.071). The on-treatment ischemic stroke events were 19 for the simvastatin plus niacin extended-release group and 15 for the simvastatin plus placebo group [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] .
Cases of rhabdomyolysis have been associated with concomitant administration of lipid-altering doses (≥1 g/day) of niacin and statins. Elderly patients and patients with diabetes, renal failure, or uncontrolled hypothyroidism are particularly at risk. Monitor patients for any signs and symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during the initial months of therapy and during any periods of upward dosage titration. Periodic serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and potassium determinations should be considered in such situations, but there is no assurance that such monitoring will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy.
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