NUCYNTA — tapentadol hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Physicians Total Care, Inc.
NUCYNTA® (tapentadol) is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe acute pain in patients 18 years of age or older.
As with many centrally-acting analgesic medications, the dosing regimen should be individualized according to the severity of pain being treated, the previous experience with similar drugs and the ability to monitor the patient.
The dose is 50 mg, 75 mg, or 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours depending upon pain intensity.
On the first day of dosing, the second dose may be administered as soon as one hour after the first dose, if adequate pain relief is not attained with the first dose. Subsequent dosing is 50 mg, 75 mg, or 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours and should be adjusted to maintain adequate analgesia with acceptable tolerability.
Daily doses greater than 700 mg on the first day of therapy and 600 mg on subsequent days have not been studied and are not recommended.
NUCYNTA® may be given with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
NUCYNTA® has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment. The use in this population is not recommended.
No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with mild hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
NUCYNTA® should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Treatment in these patients should be initiated at 50 mg with the interval between doses no less than every 8 hours (maximum of three doses in 24 hours). Further treatment should reflect maintenance of analgesia with acceptable tolerability, to be achieved by either shortening or lengthening the dosing interval [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
NUCYNTA® has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and use in this population is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
In general, recommended dosing for elderly patients with normal renal and hepatic function is the same as for younger adult patients with normal renal and hepatic function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal and hepatic function, consideration should be given to starting elderly patients with the lower range of recommended doses.
NUCYNTA® Tablets are round, biconvex and film-coated and are available in the following strengths, colors, and debossings: 50 mg of tapentadol (yellow with “O-M” on one side and “50” on the other side), 75 mg of tapentadol (yellow-orange with “O-M” on one side and “75” on the other side), and 100 mg of tapentadol (orange with “O-M” on one side and “100” on the other side).
Like other drugs with mu-opioid agonist activity, NUCYNTA® is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression in unmonitored settings or the absence of resuscitative equipment. NUCYNTA® is also contraindicated in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercapnia in unmonitored settings or the absence of resuscitative equipment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Like drugs with mu-opioid agonist activity, NUCYNTA® is contraindicated in any patient who has or is suspected of having paralytic ileus.
NUCYNTA® is contraindicated in patients who are receiving monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors or who have taken them within the last 14 days due to potential additive effects on norepinephrine levels which may result in adverse cardiovascular events [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Respiratory depression is the primary risk of mu-opioid agonists. Respiratory depression occurs more frequently in elderly or debilitated patients and in those suffering from conditions accompanied by hypoxia, hypercapnia, or upper airway obstruction, in whom even moderate therapeutic doses may significantly decrease pulmonary ventilation.
NUCYNTA® should be administered with caution to patients with conditions accompanied by hypoxia, hypercapnia or decreased respiratory reserve such as: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, severe obesity, sleep apnea syndrome, myxedema, kyphoscoliosis, central nervous system (CNS) depression, or coma. In such patients, even usual therapeutic doses of NUCYNTA® may increase airway resistance and decrease respiratory drive to the point of apnea. Alternative non-mu-opioid agonist analgesics should be considered and NUCYNTA® should be employed only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose in such patients. If respiratory depression occurs, it should be treated as any mu-opioid agonist-induced respiratory depression [see Overdosage (10.2)].
Patients receiving other mu-opioid agonist analgesics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, other tranquilizers, sedatives, hypnotics, or other CNS depressants (including alcohol) concomitantly with NUCYNTA® may exhibit additive CNS depression. Interactive effects resulting in respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma or death may result if these drugs are taken in combination with NUCYNTA®. When such combined therapy is contemplated, a dose reduction of one or both agents should be considered.
Opioid analgesics can raise cerebrospinal fluid pressure as a result of respiratory depression with carbon dioxide retention. Therefore, NUCYNTA® should not be used in patients who may be susceptible to the effects of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure such as those with evidence of head injury and increased intracranial pressure. Opioid analgesics may obscure the clinical course of patients with head injury due to effects on pupillary response and consciousness. NUCYNTA® should be used with caution in patients with head injury, intracranial lesions, or other sources of preexisting increased intracranial pressure.
Tapentadol is a mu-opioid agonist and is a Schedule II controlled substance. Such drugs are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders. Diversion of Schedule II products is an act subject to criminal penalty.
NUCYNTA® can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists, legal or illicit. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing NUCYNTA® in situations where the physician or pharmacist is concerned about an increased risk of misuse and abuse. Concerns about abuse and addiction should not prevent the proper management of pain. However, all patients treated with mu-opioid agonists require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, since use of mu-opioid agonist analgesic products carry the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)].
NUCYNTA® may be abused by crushing, chewing, snorting or injecting the product. These practices pose a significant risk to the abuser that could result in overdose and death [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
Patients should be cautioned that NUCYNTA® may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery. This is to be expected especially at the beginning of treatment, at any change of dosage as well as in combination with alcohol or tranquilizers [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
Due to its mu-opioid agonist activity, NUCYNTA® may be expected to have additive effects when used in conjunction with alcohol, opioids, or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, hypotension, and profound sedation, coma or death [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].
NUCYNTA® has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder, and such patients were excluded from clinical studies. NUCYNTA® should be prescribed with care in patients with a history of a seizure disorder or any condition that would put the patient at risk of seizures.
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome may occur with use of Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI) products, including NUCYNTA® , particularly with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), SNRIs, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), MAOIs and triptans, and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAOIs). This may occur within the recommended dose. Serotonin syndrome may include mental-status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).
Withdrawal symptoms may occur if NUCYNTA® is discontinued abruptly. These symptoms may include: anxiety, sweating, insomnia, rigors, pain, nausea, tremors, diarrhea, upper respiratory symptoms, piloerection, and rarely, hallucinations. Withdrawal symptoms may be reduced by tapering NUCYNTA® [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
A study of NUCYNTA® in subjects with hepatic impairment showed higher serum concentrations than in those with normal hepatic function. NUCYNTA® should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
NUCYNTA® has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and, therefore, use in this population is not recommended.
Like other drugs with mu-opioid agonist activity, NUCYNTA® may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi and should be used with caution in patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis.
The following treatment-emergent adverse events are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Respiratory Depression [see Contraindications (4.1) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- CNS Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse event rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. A treatment-emergent adverse event refers to any untoward medical event associated with the use of the drug in humans, whether or not considered drug-related.
Based on data from nine Phase 2/3 studies that administered multiple doses (seven placebo- and/or active-controlled, one noncontrolled and one Phase 3 active-controlled safety study) the most common adverse events (reported by ≥10% in any NUCYNTA® dose group) were: nausea, dizziness, vomiting and somnolence.
The most common reasons for discontinuation due to adverse events in the studies described above (reported by ≥1% in any NUCYNTA® dose group) were dizziness (2.6% vs. 0.5%), nausea (2.3% vs. 0.6%), vomiting (1.4% vs. 0.2%), somnolence (1.3% vs. 0.2%) and headache (0.9% vs. 0.2%) for NUCYNTA® — and placebo-treated patients, respectively.
Seventy-six percent of NUCYNTA® -treated patients from the nine studies experienced adverse events.
NUCYNTA® was studied in multiple-dose, active- or placebo-controlled studies, or noncontrolled studies (n = 2178), in single-dose studies (n = 870), in open-label study extension (n = 483) and in Phase 1 studies (n = 597). Of these, 2034 patients were treated with doses of 50 mg to 100 mg of NUCYNTA® dosed every 4 to 6 hours.
The data described below reflect exposure to NUCYNTA® in 3161 patients, including 449 exposed for 45 days. NUCYNTA® was studied primarily in placebo- and active-controlled studies (n = 2266, and n = 2944, respectively). The population was 18 to 85 years old (mean age 46 years), 68% were female, 75% white and 67% were postoperative. Most patients received NUCYNTA® doses of 50 mg, 75 mg, or 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours.
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