Prescription Drug Information: Prilosec (Page 2 of 10)

2.3 Administration Instructions

PRILOSEC is intended to be prepared in water and administered orally or via a nasogastric (NG) or gastric tube.
Take PRILOSEC before meals.
Antacids may be used concomitantly with PRILOSEC.
Missed doses: If a dose is missed, administer as soon as possible. However, if the next scheduled dose is due, do not take the missed dose, and take the next dose on time. Do not take two doses at one time to make up for a missed dose.

Oral Administration in Water

1.
Empty the contents of a 2.5 mg packet into a container containing 5 mL of water.
2.
Empty the contents of a 10 mg packet into a container containing 15 mL of water.
3.
Stir.
4.
Leave 2 to 3 minutes to thicken.
5.
Stir and drink within 30 minutes.
6.
If any material remains after drinking, add more water, stir and drink immediately.

Administration with Water via a NG or Gastric Tube (Size 6 or Larger)

1.
Add 5 mL of water to a catheter tipped syringe and then add the contents of a 2.5 mg packet (or 15 mL of water for the 10 mg packet). It is important to only use a catheter tipped syringe when administering through a nasogastric tube or gastric tube.
2.
Immediately shake the syringe and leave 2 to 3 minutes to thicken.
3.
Shake the syringe and inject through the nasogastric or gastric tube into the stomach within 30 minutes.
4.
Refill the syringe with an equal amount of water.
5.
Shake and flush any remaining contents from the nasogastric or gastric tube into the stomach.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

PRILOSEC For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension: 2.5 mg and 10 mg omeprazole in unit dose packets containing a fine yellow powder, consisting of white to brownish omeprazole magnesium granules and pale yellow inactive granules.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

PRILOSEC is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to substituted benzimidazoles or to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, and urticaria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Adverse Reactions (6)].
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), including PRILOSEC, are contraindicated in patients receiving rilpivirine-containing products [see Drug Interactions (7)].
For information about contraindications of antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated in combination with PRILOSEC, refer to the CONTRAINDICATIONS section of their package inserts.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Presence of Gastric Malignancy

In adults, symptomatic response to therapy with PRILOSEC does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. Consider additional follow-up and diagnostic testing in adult patients who have a suboptimal response or an early symptomatic relapse after completing treatment with a PPI. In older patients, also consider an endoscopy.

5.2 Acute Interstitial Nephritis

Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including PRILOSEC. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue PRILOSEC if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see Contraindications (4)].

5.3 Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea

Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like PRILOSEC may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.

Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with PRILOSEC, refer to Warnings and Precautions sections of the corresponding prescribing information.

5.4 Bone Fracture

Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) , Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

5.5 Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been reported in patients taking PPIs, including omeprazole. These events have occurred as both new onset and an exacerbation of existing autoimmune disease. The majority of PPI-induced lupus erythematosus cases were CLE.

The most common form of CLE reported in patients treated with PPIs was subacute CLE (SCLE) and occurred within weeks to years after continuous drug therapy in patients ranging from infants to the elderly. Generally, histological findings were observed without organ involvement.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is less commonly reported than CLE in patients receiving PPIs. PPI associated SLE is usually milder than non-drug induced SLE. Onset of SLE typically occurred within days to years after initiating treatment primarily in patients ranging from young adults to the elderly. The majority of patients presented with rash; however, arthralgia and cytopenia were also reported.

Avoid administration of PPIs for longer than medically indicated. If signs or symptoms consistent with CLE or SLE are noted in patients receiving PRILOSEC, discontinue the drug and refer the patient to the appropriate specialist for evaluation. Most patients improve with discontinuation of the PPI alone in 4 to 12 weeks. Serological testing (e.g., ANA) may be positive and elevated serological test results may take longer to resolve than clinical manifestations.

5.6 Interaction with Clopidogrel

Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as omeprazole, that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 80 mg omeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel, even when administered 12 hours apart. When using PRILOSEC, consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.7 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency

Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed in patients treated with PRILOSEC.

5.8 Hypomagnesemia

Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.

For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

5.9 Interaction with St. John’s Wort or Rifampin

Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease omeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC with St. John’s Wort or rifampin.

5.10 Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors

Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.11 Interaction with Methotrexate

Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.12 Fundic Gland Polyps

PPI use is associated with an increased risk of fundic gland polyps that increases with long-term use, especially beyond one year. Most PPI users who developed fundic gland polyps were asymptomatic and fundic gland polyps were identified incidentally on endoscopy. Use the shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling:

Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
Fundic Gland Polyps [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]

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