Prescription Drug Information: SILVADENE

SILVADENE- silver sulfadiazine cream
Pfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc

DESCRIPTION

SILVADENE Cream 1% is a soft, white, water-miscible cream containing the antimicrobial agent silver sulfadiazine in micronized form, which has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Each gram of SILVADENE Cream 1% contains 10 mg of micronized silver sulfadiazine. The cream vehicle consists of white petrolatum, stearyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, sorbitan monooleate, polyoxyl 40 stearate, propylene glycol, and water, with methylparaben 0.3% as a preservative. SILVADENE Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) spreads easily and can be washed off readily with water.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Silver sulfadiazine has broad antimicrobial activity. It is bactericidal for many gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria as well as being effective against yeast. Results from in vitro testing are listed below.

Sufficient data have been obtained to demonstrate that silver sulfadiazine will inhibit bacteria that are resistant to other antimicrobial agents and that the compound is superior to sulfadiazine.

Studies utilizing radioactive micronized silver sulfadiazine, electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques have revealed that the mechanism of action of silver sulfadiazine on bacteria differs from silver nitrate and sodium sulfadiazine. Silver sulfadiazine acts only on the cell membrane and cell wall to produce its bactericidal effect.

Results of In Vitro Testing with SILVADENE® Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) Concentration of Silver Sulfadiazine Number of Sensitive Strains/Total Number of Strains Tested
Genus & Species 50 μg/mL 100 μg/mL
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa 130/130 130/130
Xanthomonas (Pseudomonas)
maltophilia 7/7 7/7
Enterobacter species 48/50 50/50
Enterobacter cloacae 24/24 24/24
Klebsiella species 53/54 54/54
Escherichia coli 63/63 63/63
Serratia species 27/28 28/28
Proteus mirabilis 53/53 53/53
Morganella morganii 10/10 10/10
Providencia rettgeri 2/2 2/2
Providencia species 1/1 1/1
Proteus vulgaris 2/2 2/2
Citrobacter species 10/10 10/10
Acinetobacter
calcoaceticus 10/11 11/11
Staphylococcus aureus 100/101 100/101
Staphylococcus
epidermidis 51/51 51/51
β-Hemolytic
Streptococcus 4/4 4/4
Enterococcus species 52/53 53/53
Corynebacterium-
diphtheriae 2/2 2/2
Clostridium perfringens 0/2 2/2
Candida albicans 43/50 50/50

Silver sulfadiazine is not a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and may be useful in situations where such agents are contraindicated.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

SILVADENE Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) is a topical antimicrobial drug indicated as an adjunct for the prevention and treatment of wound sepsis in patients with second- and third-degree burns.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

SILVADENE Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to silver sulfadiazine or any of the other ingredients in the preparation.

Because sulfonamide therapy is known to increase the possibility of kernicterus, SILVADENE Cream 1% should not be used on pregnant women approaching or at term, on premature infants, or on newborn infants during the first 2 months of life.

WARNINGS

Absorption of silver sulfadiazine varies depending upon the percent of body surface area and the extent of the tissue damage. Although few have been reported, it is possible that any adverse reaction associated with sulfonamides may occur. Some of the reactions, which have been associated with sulfonamides, are as follows: blood dyscrasias including agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemolytic anemia; dermatologic and allergic reactions, including life-threatening cutaneous reactions [Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and exfoliative dermatitis]; gastrointestinal reactions; hepatitis and hepatocellular necrosis; CNS reactions; and toxic nephrosis.

There is potential cross-sensitivity between silver sulfadiazine and other sulfonamides. If allergic reactions attributable to treatment with silver sulfadiazine occur, continuation of therapy must be weighed against the potential hazards of the particular allergic reaction.

Fungal proliferation in and below the eschar may occur. However, the incidence of clinically reported fungal superinfection is low.

The use of SILVADENE Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) in some cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals may be hazardous, as hemolysis may occur.

PRECAUTIONS

General

If hepatic and renal functions become impaired and elimination of drug decreases, accumulation may occur and discontinuation of SILVADENE Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) should be weighed against the therapeutic benefit being achieved.

In considering the use of topical proteolytic enzymes in conjunction with SILVADENE Cream 1%, the possibility should be noted that silver may inactivate such enzymes.

SILVADENE Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) is for topical use only. Avoid contact of SILVADENE Cream 1% (silver sulfadiazine) with the eye.

Laboratory Tests

In the treatment of burn wounds involving extensive areas of the body, the serum sulfa concentrations may approach adult therapeutic levels (8 mg% to 12 mg%). Therefore, in these patients it would be advisable to monitor serum sulfa concentrations. Renal function should be carefully monitored and the urine should be checked for sulfa crystals. Absorption of the propylene glycol vehicle has been reported to affect serum osmolality, which may affect the interpretation of laboratory tests.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term dermal toxicity studies of 24 months’ duration in rats and 18 months’ in mice with concentrations of silver sulfadiazine three to ten times the concentration in SILVADENE Cream 1% revealed no evidence of carcinogenicity.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects.

A reproductive study has been performed in rabbits at doses up to three to ten times the concentration of silver sulfadiazine in SILVADENE Cream 1% and has revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to silver sulfadiazine. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly justified, especially in pregnant women approaching or at term. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS.)

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether silver sulfadiazine is excreted in human milk. However, sulfonamides are known to be excreted in human milk, and all sulfonamide derivatives are known to increase the possibility of kernicterus. Because of the possibility for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from sulfonamides, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Silvadene Cream 1%, seven percent were 65 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS.)

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