The following events have been reported in association with tolterodine use in worldwide post-marketing experience:
General: anaphylaxis and angioedema; Cardiovascular: tachycardia, palpitations, peripheral edema; Gastrointestinal: diarrhea; Central/Peripheral Nervous: confusion, disorientation, memory impairment, hallucinations.
Reports of aggravation of symptoms of dementia (e.g., confusion, disorientation, delusion) have been reported after tolterodine therapy was initiated in patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of dementia.
Because these spontaneously reported events are from the worldwide post-marketing experience, the frequency of events and the role of tolterodine in their causation cannot be reliably determined.
Fluoxetine, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6 activity, significantly inhibited the metabolism of tolterodine immediate release in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, resulting in a 4.8-fold increase in tolterodine AUC. There was a 52% decrease in C max and a 20% decrease in AUC of 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT), the pharmacologically active metabolite of tolterodine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)] . The sums of unbound serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT are only 25% higher during the interaction. No dose adjustment is required when tolterodine and fluoxetine are co-administered [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Ketoconazole (200 mg daily), a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased the mean C max and AUC of tolterodine by 2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.
For patients receiving ketoconazole or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole, clarithromycin, or ritonavir, the recommended dose of tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules is 2 mg once daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
No clinically relevant interactions have been observed when tolterodine was co-administered with warfarin, with a combined oral contraceptive drug containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, or with diuretics [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
In vivo drug-interaction data show that tolterodine immediate release does not result in clinically relevant inhibition of CYP1A2, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, or 3A4 as evidenced by lack of influence on the marker drugs caffeine, debrisoquine, S-warfarin and omeprazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Interactions between tolterodine and laboratory tests have not been studied.
The concomitant use of tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules with other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents may increase the frequency and/or severity of dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, somnolence, and other anticholinergic pharmacological effects.
There are no available data with tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules use in pregnant women to inform drug-associated risks. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of tolterodine and its 5-HMT metabolite to pregnant mice during organogenesis did not produce adverse developmental outcomes at doses approximately 9 to 12 times the clinical exposure at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day; however, higher doses produced adverse developmental outcomes (see Data) .
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background rate of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
No anomalies or malformations were observed after oral administration of tolterodine to pregnant mice during organogenesis at approximately 9-12 times the clinical exposure to the pharmacologically active components of tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules (based on the AUC of tolterodine and its 5-HMT metabolite at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day). At 14-18 times the clinical exposure (doses of 30 to 40 mg/kg/day) in mice, tolterodine was embryo-lethal, caused reduced fetal weight, and increased the incidence of fetal abnormalities (cleft palate, digital abnormalities, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, and various skeletal abnormalities, primarily reduced ossification). Pregnant rabbits administered tolterodine subcutaneously at about 0.3-2.5 times the clinical exposure (dose of 0.8 mg/kg/day) did not show any embryotoxicity or teratogenicity.
There is no information on the presence of tolterodine or its 5-HMT metabolite in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Based on limited data, tolterodine is excreted into the milk in mice in low amounts (see Data) . The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.
The use of radiolabeled tolterodine in pregnant mice produced milk: plasma ratios that ranged between 0.0 and 0.7.
The effectiveness of tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules has not been established in pediatric patients.
Efficacy was not established in two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 12-week studies that enrolled 710 pediatric patients (486 on tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules, 224 on placebo) aged 5–10 years with urinary frequency and urge incontinence. The percentage of patients with urinary tract infections was higher in patients treated with tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules (6.6%) compared to patients who received placebo (4.5%). Aggressive, abnormal, and hyperactive behavior and attention disorders occurred in 2.9% of children treated with tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules compared to 0.9% of children treated with placebo.
No overall differences in safety were observed between the older and younger patients treated with tolterodine.
In multiple-dose studies in which tolterodine immediate release 4 mg (2 mg bid) was administered, serum concentrations of tolterodine and of 5-HMT were similar in healthy elderly volunteers (aged 64 through 80 years) and healthy young volunteers (aged less than 40 years). In another clinical study, elderly volunteers (aged 71 through 81 years) were given tolterodine immediate release 2 or 4 mg (1 or 2 mg bid). Mean serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT in these elderly volunteers were approximately 20% and 50% higher, respectively, than concentrations reported in young healthy volunteers. However, no overall differences were observed in safety between older and younger patients on tolterodine in the Phase 3, 12-week, controlled clinical studies; therefore, no tolterodine dosage adjustment for elderly patients is recommended.
Renal impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine immediate release and its metabolites. In a study conducted in patients with creatinine clearance between 10 and 30 mL/min, tolterodine and 5-HMT levels were approximately 2–3 fold higher in patients with renal impairment than in healthy volunteers. Exposure levels of other metabolites of tolterodine (e.g., tolterodine acid, N -dealkylated tolterodine acid, N -dealkylated tolterodine, and N -dealkylated hydroxy tolterodine) were significantly higher (10–30 fold) in renally impaired patients as compared to the healthy volunteers. The recommended dose for patients with severe renal impairment (CCr: 10-30 mL/min) is tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules 2 mg daily. Patients with CCr < 10 mL/min have not been studied and use of tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules in this population is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] . Tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules have not been studied in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [CCr 30-80 mL/min].
Liver impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine immediate release. In a study of tolterodine immediate release conducted in cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh Class A and B), the elimination half-life of tolterodine immediate release was longer in cirrhotic patients (mean, 7.8 hours) than in healthy, young, and elderly volunteers (mean, 2 to 4 hours). The clearance of orally administered tolterodine immediate release was substantially lower in cirrhotic patients (1.0 ± 1.7 L/h/kg) than in the healthy volunteers (5.7 ± 3.8 L/h/kg). The recommended dose for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A or B) is tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules 2 mg once daily. Tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules are not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] .
Overdosage with tolterodine tartrate extended-release capsules can potentially result in severe central anticholinergic effects and should be treated accordingly.
ECG monitoring is recommended in the event of overdosage. In dogs, changes in the QT interval (slight prolongation of 10% to 20%) were observed at a suprapharmacologic dose of 4.5 mg/kg, which is about 68 times higher than the recommended human dose. In clinical trials of normal volunteers and patients, QT interval prolongation was observed with tolterodine immediate release at doses up to 8 mg (4 mg bid) and higher doses were not evaluated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)] .
A 27-month-old child who ingested 5 to 7 tolterodine immediate release 2 mg tablets was treated with a suspension of activated charcoal and was hospitalized overnight with symptoms of dry mouth. The child fully recovered.
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